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JFotmTFeto bg jjrfbate sutmcrfplfon, fn 1861, 

Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 

No. 11, 6jf 

(/ - - ?. /to/ 


JUN 8 1891 





This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ra.y Society for 

the Year 1890. 










(the late) 




Vol. IV. 







The present volume is devoted to the larvae of the 
Noctuae, containing, however, only the first portion of 
that group of night-flying Moths. 

It is thought that in two more volumes it will be 
possible to complete the Noctuae, so far as their larvae 
have been figured by Mr. Buckler. 

As in the previous volumes, the letters W. B. or 
J. H. after each description indicate whether written 
by William Buckler or by John Hellins, and the figures 
immediately following give the date when the descrip- 
tion was writteu for publication, the reference that 
follows being to the volume and page of the ' Ento- 
mologists' Monthly Magazine,' or to Mr. Buckler's 
Note Books. 

We are again indebted to Mr. G. 0. Bignell for a 
list of the parasites bred from the larvae of which the 
present volume treats. 



January \1tli, 1891. 


Cymatophora duplaris 

— fluctuosa 

— ocularis 
Diphthera Orion 
Acronycta leporina 

— strigosa 

— alni 

— rumicis 

— auricoma 

— myricse 
Leucania conigera 

— albipuncta 

— putrescens 

— littoralis 

— comma 

— straminea 

— pallens 
Tapinostola Bondii 
Meliana flammea 
Nonagria fulva 

— elymi . 

— neurica 

— geminipuncta 

— sparganii 

— typhse . 
Hydraecia nictitans 

— micacea 
Xylophasia lithoxylea 

— polyodon 

— hepatica 

— scolopacina 
Xylomyges conspicillaris 
Aporophyla australis 







Neuria saponarise . . . . . .66 

Heliophobus popularis 

. 67 

Charseas graminis . 


Pachetra leucophoea 

. 70 

Luperina testacea . 

. 73 

— cespitis 

. 75 

Mamestra abject a . 

. 76 

— furva . 

. 79 

Apamea connexa . 

. 84 

— gemina 

. 86 

— unanimis 

. 87 

— ophiogramma . 

. 93 

— fibrosa 

. 94 

— oculea . 

. 97 

Miana fasciuncula . 

. 99 

— literosa 

. 100 

— furuncula 

. 102 

— expolita 

. 103 

— arcuosa 

. 106 

Celsena Haworthii . 

. 107 

Grarnmesia trilinea 

. 110 

Caradrina Morpheus 

. Ill 

List of Parasites bred from those families of the Noctuina which 

are included in this volume . . . .114 

Index . 

. 116 








Family Noctuo-BombycidjE. 

Thyatira derasa 

LIY, fig. 1 

,, batis 

LIV, fig. 2 

Cymatophora duplaris . 


LIY, fig. 3 

„ fluctuosa . 


LIY, fig. 4 

„ diluta 

• • . 

LIY, fig. 5 

„ or 

LIY, fig. 6 

„ ocularis . 


LIY, fig. 7 

„ flavicornis 


LY, fig. 1 

„ ridens 


LV, fig. 2 

Family Beyophilid^i. 

Bryophila perla 



„ glandifera 


LY, fig. 4 

Family Bombycoidje. 

Diphthera Orion . 


LV, fig. 5 

Acronycta tridens . 


LYI, fig. 1 

„ psi . 

LVI, fig. 2 

„ leporina 


LYI, fig. 3 

„ aceris 

• • • 

LYI, fig. 4 

,, megacephala 


LYI, fig. 5 

„ strigosa 


LYI, fig. 6 




Family Bombycoid^: — continued 
Acronycta alni 

, ligustri . 

, rumicis . 

, auricoma 

, menyanthidis 

, myricse . 

Simyra venosa 

Family LeucaniDjE. 
Leucania conigera . 

„ turca 

„ lithargyrea 

„ albipuncta 

,, obsoleta . 

„ putrescens 

„ littoralis . 

„ pudorina 

„ comma . 

„ strammea 

„ impura . 

,, pallens . 

„ phragmitidis 
Tapinostola Bondii 
Meliana flammea . 
Nonagria fulva 

„ neurica . 

„ geminipuncta 

„ sparganii 
typhse . 

„ crassicornis 

Family Apamid^]. 
Gortyna flavago 
Hydra?cia nictitans 

„ petasitis 

„ micacea . 
Axylia putris 
Xylophasia rnrea . 

„ lithoxylea 

„ polyodon 

,. hepatica 

„ scolopacina 




.. LYII, fig. 1 


.. LYII, fig. 2 


.. LYII, fig. 3 


.. LYII, fig. 4 


.. LYII, fig. 5 


.. LYII, fig. 6 


.. LYII, fig. 7 


. LYIII, fig. 1 

.. LYIII, fig. 2 


. LYIII, fig. 3 


. LYIII, fig. 4 


.. LYIII, fig. 5 


LIX,fig. 1 

LIX, fig. 2 


LIX, fig. 3 


LIX, fig. 4 


LIX, fig. 5 


LX, fig. 1 


LX, fig. 2 



LX, fig. 3 


LX, fig. 4 


LX, fig. 5 


LXI, fig. 1 


LXI, fig. 2 


LXI, fig. 3 


LXI, fig. 4 


LXI, fig. 5 

LXII, fig. 1 


LXII, fig. 2 

, . 

LXII, fig. 3 


. LXII, fig. 4 

LXII, fig. 5 

LXII, fig. 6 


. LXIII, fig. 1 


. LXIII, fig. 2 


. LXIII, fig. 3 


. LXIII, fig. 4 





Family Apamid^ — continued 
Dipterygia pinastri 
Xylomyges conspicillaris 
Aporophyla australis 
Neuria saponariae . 
Heliophobus popularis 

„ hispida 

Charseas graminis . 
Pachetra leucophaea 
Oerigo cytherea 
Luperina testacea . 
„ cespitis . 
Mamestra abjecta . 
„ albicolon 
„ furva 
„ brassicse 
„ persicariaa 
Apamea basilinea . 
„ connexa . 
ii gemina 
„ unanimis . 
„ ophiogramma 
„ fibrosa 
„ oculea 
Miana strigilis 
„ fasciuncula 
„ literosa 
„ furuncula . 
„ expclita 
„ arcuosa 
Celsena Haworthii . 

Family Caradrinid^. 
Grammesia trilinea 
Caradrina Morpheus 

„ alsines . 

„ blanda . 

„ cubicularis 

... LXIII, fig. 5 


... LXIII, fig. 6 


... LXIV, fig. 1 


... LXVI, fig. 5 


... LXIV, fig. 2 

... LXIV, fig. 3 


... LXIV, fig. 4 


... LXV, fig. 1 

... LXV, fig. 2 


LXV, fig. 3 


... LXV, fig. 4 


LXV, fig. 5 

... LXVI, fig. 1 


... LXVI, fig. 2 

... LXVI, fig. 3 

... LXVI, fig. 4 

... LXVII, fig. 1 



... LXVII, fig. 2 


... LXVII, fig. 3 



... LXVII, fig. 4 


... LXVII, fig. 5 

...LXVIII, fig. 1 


... LXVIII, fig. 2 


... LXVIII, fig. 3 


... LXVIII, fig. 4 


... LXVIII, fig. 5 


...LXVIII, fig. 6 


... LXVIII, fig. 7 


... LXIX, fig. 1 


... LXIX, fig. 2 

... LXIX, fig. 3 

... LXIX, fig. 4 

... LXIX, fig. 5 




Cymatophora duplaris. 
Plate LIV, fig. 3. 

On the 12th September, 1869, Mr. George H. 
Kenrick, of Inverhadden, by Kinloch Rannoch, kindly 
sent me eight examples of the larva of this species, of 
different sizes. 

This larva, when full fed, is about seven-eighths of 
an inch long, moderately stout and cylindrical, the 
head rounded. 

The ground colour a pale and dull olive green, 
deeper in tint on the back, with a dorsal pulsating 
stripe of dingy olive green ; the subdorsal stripe very 
broad, of a dusky olive, sharply defined at its lower 
edge, but softened above into the ground colour of the 
back ; midway between it and the spiracles a fine 
thread-like line of dull yellowish runs along the sides ; 
the spiracles are black, each within a blackish-olive 
blotch ; the tubercular dots are small and black, those 
on the back have a ring of paler olive at their base ; 
the dark olive of the subdorsal on one side unites with 
that of the other side transversely on the twelfth seg- 
ment, forming there an abrupt termination of the dark 
colour. The head is reddish and a little shining, 

VOL. iv. 1 


having the ocelli as a black spot on each side, and the 
mouth blackish; the base of papillse yellowish; on the 
second segment is a small black polished plate. The 
skin of the rest of the body is very thin, but without 
any gloss — indeed, remarkable for its opacity of surface, 
the segmental folds showing yellowish. 

These larvas feed on birch, between united leaves. 
(W. B., Note Book II, 188.) 

Cymatophora fluctuosa. 
Plate LIV, fig. 4. 

On July 3rd, 1873, arrived some eggs of this species, 
laid singly and in twos, on the edges mostly, of birch 
leaves, from Mr. James Batty, of Sheffield. On the 7th, 
when I first saw them, they were a pale whity-brown 
or cream colour — turning during the night to a faint 
grey tint, and on the afternoon of the 8th they began 
to hatch. 

"When first laid, the eggs were of the same pale straw- 
colour, and the approach to a delicate grey scarcely to 
be noticed. 

The egg is oval and ribbed longitudinally and very 
finely reticulated, and is gummed to the leaf length- 
wise on a part of its surface. 

The newly hatched larva is large in front, tapering 
behind, of a whitish colour, with a very pale whity- 
brown head ; on the 10th the larvas had become very 
pale green. (W. B., Note Book II, 21.) 

Cymatophora ocularis. 

Plate LIV, fig. 7. 

On the 28th of May, 1874, Mr. J. E. Fletcher, of 
Worcester, very kindly sent me a dozen eggs of this 
species which had been laid the 23rd and 26th of May ; 


he found the female moths, although impregnated, very 
unwilling to deposit in captivity, but at last they chose 
to lay their eggs singly, or in little groups of two or 
three together, on paper rather than on the twigs of 
poplar with which they had been supplied ; the hour of 
laying was after dusk in the evening. One moth lived 
eleven days after pairing, and then died without laying 
an egg. 

In its general figure the egg is semi-spherical, convex 
above and flattish beneath, its surface very finely 
reticulated ; creamy-white in colour, with the margin 
at the base of the shell colourless and pellucid in con- 
trast to the opacity of the rest, over which the shell is 

On the evening of the 1st of June, without the eggs 
showing any previous change of colour, the larvae began 
to hatch, four of them within half an hour of dusk, the 
others in course of the night. The young larvse were 
nearly one-eighth of an inch long, of a pale pellucid 
straw colour, inclining to greenish, the segmental folds 
showing pale yellow. By June 5th they were three- 
sixteenths of an inch long, and one or two had, by this 
time, united the poplar leaves by short, thick, silken 
attachments, and they were all feeding on the green 
cuticle. By the 12th the most forward were half an 
inch in length, and others about three-eighths ; these 
last showed a black dot on each side of the second 
segment, while those half an inch long had a black dot 
on each side of the second, third, fourth, eleventh, and 
twelfth segments : the head buff colour, the body of 
greenish-buff, with a broad green velvety interior 
showing through the semi-transparent skin. Up to this 
time they had been eating away the cuticle from both 
upper and under sides of the leaves, fastened by 
detached threads one upon the other; henceforward 
they began and continued to eat quite through the 
substance of the leaves from the edges, but each larva 
was always concealed between two leaves united by a 
couple of strong, broad-based, short, stud-like fasten- 


ings of white silk ; in this retreat, when not feeding, 
the larva reposes with its body curved round— and 
here also, when the time for a moult approaches, it lies 
in a close coil, its head resting on the middle of one 
side of the body. 

Particularly noticing a larva, which moulted on 
June 27th, I observed the body to be very soft and 
delicate, velvety in appearance, of a pale buff tint ; the 
head pale honey-yellow, rather glistening, with black 
ocelli, and black on each side of the mouth ; two black 
dots, one above the other, on the side of the second 
and third segments, and one on the fourth, another 
also on the twelfth segment. After the last moult, 
when the larvae measured fully an inch in length, their 
heads were pale brownish-orange, broadly marked with 
black at the sides of the mouth and round the papillae, 
the skin of the body still soft in texture, without the 
least gloss excepting a narrow shining plate behind the 
head, which is slightly glistening, and the anal flap 
and legs ; the colour of the body delicate greyish- 
green, showing through a pale buff skin, the dorsal 
vessel seen pulsating distinctly, the spiracles flesh- 
colour, and the colouring along their region pale yel- 
lowish, the black dots just as before. 

By the 4th of July two larvae had spun up, the two 
others were still feeding, the rest having died off one 
at a time at different stages, probably from being so 
often interrupted by my investigations. Even at the 
last, when mature, the habit of the larva is still to lie 
curled round, with its head inwards, and towards, or 
in contact with, the seventh or eighth segment of its 
body. I found also that when turned out from its 
domicile between two leaves, the larva, when placed 
on a fresh leaf and another laid over, would quickly 
spin new fastenings, but it was not easy to watch its 
proceedings, for, when I raised the upper leaf but a 
very little in order to peep, the larva would directly 
strengthen and shorten the silk stud that I had prob- 
ably stretched,, and it did so by taking the middle or 


thinnest part between its two front legs, and pulling 
it inwards towards its body, and holding it there dex- 
terously, whilst it spun shorter threads in a moment 
or two to the surface of the leaves, bringing them into 
close contact ; after having thus fortified itself, it 
would afc once curl round into its favourite position, 
and go to sleep until roused again on another side in 
the same manner, when it would repeat the operations 
for its security, and shut out further observation. 

Three moths were bred, two on the 6th, and one on 
the 9th of June, 1875. 

The full-grown larvae, while crawling, measured 
If to 1^ inches in length, moderately stout in propor- 
tion, cylindrical, tapering very little anteriorly near 
the broad head, and a little on the two hinder seg- 
ments ; in point of colour the head was now orange- 
ochreous, barred on either side the mouth with black 
as far as the ocelli, which were included, and with 
black square marks surrounding the pale antenna! 
papillae, its surface a little granulous and shining ; the 
skin of the body beautifully soft and smooth, without 
gloss, excepting a narrow, shining, very pale, greyish 
plate on the second segment and on the anal tip ; all 
the legs shining ; its colouring above on the back very 
faint yellowish, most tenderly tinged with greyish, 
changing almost imperceptibly to primrose-yellow 
along the spiracular region, and again below to the 
same delicate tint as the back ; a very faint glaucous 
pulsating vessel showed partially through the dorsal 
region. On each side of the front margin of the second 
segment were three black spots, on the side of the third 
segment two black spots one above the other, and on 
the side of the fourth one black spot, and one black 
spot on the side of the twelfth segment ; the spiracles 
were pale flesh-colour, the tubercular dots whity- 
brown, which, together with their short and fine 
single hairs, could only be discerned with a good lens. 

The cocoon was placed in a hollow cave contrived 
by spinning several leaves together at their edges, and 


was composed first of an open network of coarse silk 
of a deep brownish-red colour, the meshes of which 
were at first, when wet, quite regular and symmetrical 
in some parts, and very flexible (at which time the 
pale skin of the larva could be seen through them) ; 
but these soon contracted, and were enveloped by the 
closing up of the leafy surroundings. 

When the cocoon was opened and divested of its 
leaves, it was a remarkable specimen of reticulation ; 
the outer foundation oval in form, three-fourths of an 
inch long, made with very s-tout threads, leaving large 
meshes of oval, pear-like, and angular shapes, filled 
with a yery tangled layer of much finer silk, remind- 
ing one of the smaller vessels of a skeletonised leaf. 

The pupa was five- eighths of an inch in length, 
thick, and dumpy in form and proportiou, the surface 
roughened, except in the abdominal divisions, by 
minute pits, and on the wing-covers and thorax by 
corrugations ; the abdomen ending with two converg- 
ing spines, their tops recurved, crossing each other, 
and a few recurved short bristles round the abdominal 
tip ; the colour black, the abdominal divisions dark 
purplish dull red, the other parts a trifling glistening. 
(W. B., 10, 7, 76; B.M.M., XIII, p. 90, 1876.) 


Plate LV, fig. 5. 

A larva on oak was received from Mr. G. 0. Bignell, 
of Plymouth, August 6th, 1875. Length one inch and 
a quarter, moderately stout, of nearly uniform width, 
tapering very little on the last four segments, behind 
the anal segment rounded off ; the head quite as wide as 
the second segment, the rounded lobes well defined 
on the crown, broad below at the sides, a little flat- 
tened in front, the second and third segments rather 


In colour the ground on the back of the second and 
third segments is blackish- olive, on the fourth it is 
blue-black, on the others, as far as the twelfth, deep 
velvety black, the thirteenth drab colour. A large, 
broad, pale bright yellow transverse patch is on the 
back of the fifth, seventh, and tenth segments, which 
strikingly relieves the velvety-black ground ; the sub- 
dorsal line is a broken series of pale yellow spots, and 
is followed by two other broken lines of similar spots ; 
the former are absent on the fifth and show but little 
on the sixth segments. 

Along the side the ground colour is olive-drab, and 
bears three longitudinal stout lines or stripes, of sub- 
dued yellowish or a greyish-yellow ; the oval blackish 
spiracles, ringed with this yellow, are along the middle 
one. The lower part of the side and belly are drab 
colour, becoming dusky on the anterior segments ; all 
the legs are drab, and the ventral and anal feet 
remarkably wide and furnished with numerous fine 
hooks, which with the feet are very pale drab, and the 
legs shining. The head is also shining, the top of 
each lobe black ; below on each light yellow, thickly 
spotted with black, the base of the papillse pale yellow. 

On each segment is a transverse row of ten bright 
red, wart-like tubercles, bearing fascicles of light 
warm-brown, longish hairs, the two dorsal pairs of 
these being close together, and nearly in the transverse 
line, the anterior ones the smallest ; the pale yellow 
patches have these tubercles of their yellow colour and 
rather smaller, but with brown hairs like the others. 
The subdorsal spots on the twelfth segment are 
greatly enlarged ; on the back of the fourth segment 
they form transverse streaks behind the red warts. 
On the second segment is a narrow transverse bar of 
shining blackish, bearing a series of four red warts, 
The pattern on the thoracic segments is rather ob- 
scured by the long hairs, the anterior ones projecting 
over the head. 

This larva spun itself up in a cocoon, in which the 


hairs of its body were interwoven ; a little more than 
five-eighths of an inch long by three-eighths broad, 
compact and somewhat ovate in form, and of light- 
brown colour; spun within the angle of its cage 
(August 10th) the web very opaque. 

On the evening of June 4th, 1876, the moth, a S , 

On examining the cocoon, I found it had a small bit 
or two of oak leaf, woven in, and was very strong in 
texture. The pupa skin was little more than half an 
inch in length, stout in proportion, tapering from the 
lower margin of the wing-covers to the end of the 
abdomen, where it was rounded off and furnished with 
six equidistant, short, curved outwards, spikes on the 
anterior surface ; on the dorsal surface from the 
spiracles on each side was an anterior transverse line of 
coarse and deep punctures, forming a roughened ridge, 
nearly close to the division of the foregoing segment ; 
on the fifth, sixth, and seventh beyond the thorax was 
near the end of each, a plain projecting edge. Its 
colour was very dark purplish-brown, nearly black, 
and shining, except just at the segmental divisions, 
the back being the most lustrous. (W. B., Note Book 
III, 17.) 


Plate LVI, fig. 3. 

One young larva on birch was received from Mr. 
W. H. Cole, September 3rd, 1874; it was then five- 
eighths of an inch long, and on the 9th was little 
more than three-quarters of an inch in length, and 
was then preparing to moult. 

It was of a light greenish yellow, and its skin 
glossy ; the head pale olive green, marked with black 
on the top of each lobe and on the front margins and 
lower parts of them ; two black dorsal marks on the 
second segment, two dorsal black dots on the third, 


two on the fifth, two on the seventh, two very small 
on the twelfth, and one on the thirteenth segment ; 
those on the fifth and seventh segments bearing slight 
tufts of black hairs. The ordinary tubercular situa- 
tions indicated each by a fine shortish black hair ; the 
dorsal line slightly marked by a greyish spot in each 
segmental division ; the spiracles white delicately out- 
lined with black. The anterior legs black, the ven- 
tral prolegs with a black spot on each, and these, as 
well as the anal pair, tipped with black hooks. The 
whole surface of the body seems covered with long 
hairs of the ground colour, which are curved and 
radiating in all directions, some long straight ones in 
front extending beyond the head. 

After moulting, its new coat was covered with 
longer hairs than before, of a pale greenish-yellow 
colour, which almost concealed its body from view. 

This larva unfortunately died on the 14th Septem- 
ber, when about one inch in length. (W. B., Note 
Book II, 119.) 


Plate LVI, fig. 6. 

On the 27th of July, 1883, a batch of eggs of this 
species arrived from Mr. J. Gr. Ross, of Bathampton ; 
they began to hatch, four of them, the same day, others 
in the course of a day or two. The eggs were laid on 
the underside of hawthorn leaves, were circular in form, 
and at first were flat and like delicate scales, but as 
they mature they rise to a slight conical eminence in 
the centre, a boss from which numerous very fine ribs 
radiate to the margin, this at the last becomes bun-like, 
though very slightly so ; the colour is greenish, match- 
ing well that of the under surface of the leaf, whereon 
they were laid. Seven hatched on the 30th, two 
more on the 1st of August, one on the 2nd. 

The newly hatched larva is of a clear whitish ground 


colour, with darkish brown head ; a deep, dingy, 
pinkish plate on the second segment ; the thoracic seg- 
ments tinged a little internally with a vessel of this 
colour ; behind this the back is particoloured with this 
and the white ground, as this pinkish colour appears 
on two segments, alternating with two white ones, so 
that beyond the thoracic segments are three distinct 
bands of dingy pink, and two of faint greenish-white ; 
the body bearing some long dusky hairs. It attacks 
the lower cuticle of the leaf, and eats out little pits, 
leaving only the upper cuticle, which then shows as a 
transparent blotch. After feeding four or five days, 
the deep pinkish marks and the head become dark 
purplish brown, and the former can be well seen, 
located on the second, fourth, fifth, eighth, ninth, 
twelfth, and thirteenth segments on the back, and the 
ground colour is a pale pellucid, rather bluish green. 

The most forward individual moulted the first time 
on the 2nd of August, while two others were laid up 
for that purpose ; the one that had moulted was soon 
feeding again on the shining upper surface of the leaf. 
The head was now black, or black-brown, and the 
dark marks crimson-brown ; the ground colour of a 
cool pellucid green, all the skin shining as though 
varnished. By the 8th others had moulted the second 
time, as I found their cast skins, and they now showed 
small darkish tubercles on the intermediate segments, 
but the others were still conspicuously blotched on 
the full width of the back ; the ground colour still a 
cool translucent green. By the 14th of August they 
had moulted the third time, and now had the head black, 
and dark purplish crimson-brown blotches down the 
middle of the back on every segment, but broadest on 
those segments which first bore them and narrower 
on the other segments, as on the sixth and seventh, 
where they were bordered with faint greenish- white 
distinctly, and similarly a little on the other segments, 
but thinner and fainter ; the sides, belly, and legs were 
of a lightish cool green colour ; the tubercles on the 


sides were of this same colour, but those on the dark 
markings on the back were black, each emitting two or 
three longish black hairs ; those on the lower part of 
the body green hairs ; all the surface of head, body, 
and hairs very glossy. On the 17th one had moulted 
the fourth time ; the head was now green in the centre 
of the face and black from the crown down the side of 
each lobe to near the pale green upper lip. One laid 
up for this moult had been badly bitten on the side of 
the ninth segment and died ; another, a moult younger, 
had died from part of the twelfth segment being eaten 
away. Two others also got over this moult, and they 
now fed by eating pieces out from the edges of the 
leaves ; by the 20th they had become seven and a half 
lines long. On the 23rd one had, during the previous 
night, moulted the fifth time, and eaten up its cast skin ; 
another had moulted a fifth time in the early morning, 
its cast skin lying beside it, and another was laid up 
waiting for its moult. The earliest was feeding well on 
a hawthorn leaf, and was already nine lines in length ; 
it was handsomer than before ; on the fifth segment the 
second or outer pair of dorsal tubercles were promi- 
nently developed into slight humps, and the back of 
the twelfth segment was elevated into a very prominent 
hump, with two apices formed by the second pair of 
tubercles, from which the hinder slope downward is 
continued by the thirteenth segment to the end of the 
anal flap ; the ground colour of the body was a rich 
velvety yellow green, well relieved by a deep crimson- 
brown dorsal marking, beginning on the head, where it 
occupied the full breadth, but on the second segment 
narrowing towards the third, and then similarly towards 
the fourth, on which it widened to embrace the rather 
humped tubercles on the fifth, and then diminished to 
no more than a broad stripe on the sixth and seventh, 
but suddenly widened to embrace the area of all four 
tubercles on the eighth and ninth, and thence was very 
gradually less to the hump on the twelfth, whence only 
a narrow dorsal stripe passed to the anal flap ; all the 


tubercles were of the yellow-green ground colour, even 
those on the dorsal marking, though the bases of these 
latter were blackish j the spiracles white, finely out- 
lined with black. The head glossy, the second seg- 
ment glistening slightly; a faint yellowish margin 
bordered the dorsal marking. The tubercles on the 
back each emit a few short hairs and one very long 
hair of blackish colour, but those on the lower part of 
the body were whitish, of varying lengths, radiating 
and sweeping the surface on which the larva may 
happen to be. The dorsal tubercles range across the 
back of a segment in the direction of a convex curve, 
quite a modification of the ordinary trapezoidal ar- 

One larva at the penultimate moult was unable to 
free itself from its old head-piece, which covered the 
mouth and caused the larva to perish miserably of 

One variety occurred after the last moult in which 
the. whole skin of the larva was of the richest deep 
velvety-purple, crimson-brown, relieved only slightly 
by the shining black tubercles, with crimson tips, 
though inconspicuous. 

When the larva is quite full-fed it becomes very 
dingy, dark velvety-green, and the purplish-brown of 
the back fades almost away ; the tubercular black spots 
remain, and are conspicuous with a ring of paler green 
at the base of each on the back, and in some, but not 
in all, a paler greenish dorsal stripe appears. 

The first larva that was full-fed ate its way into a 
piece of rotten wood for pupation on the 28th August ; 
a second did so on the 30th ; at the same time the third 
entered a piece of raspberry stem. 

On the 9th of September Mr. Ross sent me seven 
larvae, all in their last coats ; one was full-fed and was 
of a dove colour on the back, the sides a warm olive- 
green, a faintly paler dorsal stripe showed in an inter- 
rupted manner on the dorsal marking whilst the larva 
was burrowing into rotten wood the next day. This 


dorsal marking was of a beautiful dove colour, with 
black tubercular spots, tipped with bright green; the 
sides of this larva were at the last a dingy drab-green. 
The order of the spots is to be arranged as a curve 
rather than a trapezoid, the two outer spots of the 
four are each rather larger than the two inner ones, 
and from the eighth segment they all gradually decrease 
in size to the eleventh, but ou the twelfth segment they 
are larger and in pairs, forming a trapezoid. (W. B., 
Note Book IV, 208-9.) 


Plate LVII, fig. 1. 

On the 2nd of July, 1881, I received from Mr. J. 
G. Ross, of Bathampton, eight eggs of this rare species, 
one was laid on a piece of bark, the others on muslin. 
In shape the egg is circular, convex above, and finely 
and numerously ribbed ; the surface without gloss, 
and of the faintest possible tinge of pink, irregularly 
reticulated all over with crimson ; the next day most 
of them had become a more decided pink, and the 
reticulation darker crimson, on one egg quite purplish- 
brown ; in all of them the spaces of pink-brown colour 
between the reticulations were roundish, and of vary- 
ing sizes, some larger and some smaller than others ; 
on the evening of the 4th three had changed to a 
darkish brown, with a largish central black spot. 

On the night of July 4th three eggs hatched at 
10.30 p.m., another by the morning of the 5th, and 
two more on the 7th. 

The newly-hatched larva has a shining black head, 
and plate on second segment ; the third and fourth 
segments are light pinkish-grey, or violet-grey, and 
also the eleventh segment, which is the palest and 
most translucent ; the back on all the other segments 
showing dark brown, the belly and legs light pinkish- 


grey. Rather long, blackish hairs are on all the seg- 
ments, except the pale eleventh, which appears desti- 
tute of them. 

In a couple of days after feeding on the cuticle of 
an alder leaf the paler translucent parts of the larva 
are tinged with olive greenish, and the middle seg- 
ments of the body are banded transversely with dark 
purplish-brown, and very shining. 

By the 9th they were all feeding well on the cuticle 
of the underside of alder leaves, eating out little hollow 
patches which turn brown ; resting always in a curved 
posture, and, when waiting to moult, with the head 
turned round near the tail; the darker parts of the 
larva were purplish-brown, or crimson, the pale seg- 
ments semi-transparent whitish, showing purplish- 
brown tubercular dots, the whole surface very glossy, 
as though varnished ; always resting with the head 
bent round on one side. 

In the meantime two of the earliest had moulted the 
first time, and on the 10th were feeding well on the 
cuticle of tbe underside of the alder leaf; the pale 
parts were more opaque, but very glossy ; they bad 
distinct black-pointed hairs. 

On the 13th it seemed that the two oldest had 
moulted the second time, as the arrangement of the 
colours had changed as follows : head black, second 
segment dark crimson-brown, third and fourth seg- 
ments creamy- white, with a broad stripe of crimson- 
brown each side of the back, and lower down with a 
narrow stripe of the same colour ; tubercles black ; 
segments 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 dark crimson-brown, inter- 
sected by a fine creamy-white dorsal line ; segments 
10 and 11 creamy- white, the twelfth dark crimson- 
brown, the thirteenth creamy- white ; all the skin ex- 
tremely glossy ; they were now beginning to eat the 
entire thickness of the alder leaf. 

On the 16th and 17th the most forward had spun 
some silk, and was laid up on it for its next moult, which 
occurred on the afternoon of the 18th ; the larva now 


bore a pair of long clubbed hairs on each side of the 
second segment, all the other hairs being simply 
pointed, and of ordinary length ; the dark segments 
were now blacker and a white subspiracular line ran 
from the second segment to the ninth ; after a couple 
of hours this larva began to feed. The leaves now 
being eaten clean away between a couple of ribs, in 
oblong portions, in a way which should well indicate 
the presence of this larva on an alder tree ; and the 
singular way in which the larvse rest, with the head 
turned round to the tail, has been constant with each 
of them from the very first. 

Two individuals of this third moult had not only the 
two pair of clubbed pale whity-brown hairs on the 
second segment, but a pair equally long and divergent 
on the eleventh and twelfth segments, while on other 
segments, excepting the third, fourth, and seventh, 
the light-brown hairs are decidedly thickened and 
rigid, blunt at the ends, and on the eighth, ninth, and 
tenth have a slight clubbed or thickened, but flat 
appearance ; the colour of the back on the fourth seg- 
ment was cream colour, with light-brown tubercles ; 
the hinder part of the back of the tenth, with the 
whole upper area of the eleventh segment, of a rich 
cream-colour, a dorsal line on the twelfth, and the 
whole of the thirteenth segment creamy-white. By 
the 22nd of July they had grown to be about an inch 
long, and the colouring of the dark parts of the back 
was olive-brown, the tubercles black and prominent, 
excepting the dorsal pair on the fourth segment, which 
had only the tips black of their outer portion, the inner 
portion pale olive-brownish ; those on the back of the 
twelfth segment were dark olive brown ; the tubercular 
spots on the sides and ventral prolegs were black, but 
very much smaller and less prominent than those of 
the back ; the plate on the second segment was black, 
bearing six prominent black tubercles, the margin of 
skin next the head being white, and the sides along 
the spiracular region were white on the anterior 


segments, and very much tinged with cool violet grey 
on the middle segments of the body, and this grey 
colour ascended obliquely to the back on the twelfth 
segment, where it was dorsally divided by a stripe of 
white. On the back and sides of the pale cream- 
coloured eleventh segment the tubercles were absent, 
though their situation was most faintly indicated by 
the merest rudiments of warts and hairs of the white 
colour, only to be detected with a lens ; the spiracles 
were black and oval, with a halo of white. In short, 
there was a white dorsal line, much interrupted, show- 
ing chiefly near the segmental divisions ; on all the dark 
segments also a white subdorsal, a prespiracular line, 
and a subspiracular stripe ; the belly olive-brown, 
darkest on the anterior, and whitish on the posterior 
segments, thus corresponding with the colouring of the 
back. Anterior legs black ; the ventral and anal pro- 
legs black on their outer sides. 

The most forward laid up on a spinning of silk on a 
leaf in the afternoon of the 22nd, and by 5 o'clock on 
the 24th it had moulted ; after being quiescent for fifty 
hours until an hour or so before the moult occurred, 
when it at intervals turned the head and front half of 
the body from one side to the other. It had now 
assumed the normal colouring of the full-grown larva 
and was black, with the large yellow patch on each 
segment, with flattened, spear-pointed, black, glossy 

On the 8th July, 1881, 1 had one egg of this species 
given me by Mr. Bignell. It hatched on the 10th ; the 
first moult occurred on the 14th, the second on the 
18th, the third on the 27th July, and the fourth and 
last moult on the 4th August. This larva, when 
hatched, was placed on an oak leaf, from which it ate 
the cuticle of the underside, and after moulting the 
second time began to eat holes quite through the leaf, 
and soon afterwards large portions from the edges of 
the leaf, leaving only the mid-rib. It was tried more 
than once with alder, which it refused to eat, though 


it was content to lie up and moult on a leaf of alder, it 
left it to feed again on oak. On the 12th of August it 
was full-fed and began to excavate its puparium in a 
piece of rotten wood, and closed up the entrance in the 
evening. The seven larvae fed up separately from the 
2nd to 12th of August, and six perfect moths appeared 
in 1882, viz. on June 6th, a g; June 7th, two c? ; 
June 9th, a ? ; June 11th, a S (these last two I 
paired) ; and on the 17th June, two ? . 

I put the S , which emerged like most of the others 
about midday, to the ? the same evening, when copu- 
lation ensued almost immediately, and when fairly 
coupled I let them remain for the night. In the course 
of the next day, when I saw they had separated, I 
removed one from the other, intending to have the S 
as a cabinet specimen, but when they were in separate 
pots I felt puzzled to know their sex, as the shape of 
the abdomen and their antennas seemed alike. 

In this uncertainty I fed them daily with sugar and 
water, expecting the appearance of eggs to decide which 
was really the female. I could see that one moth was 
rather larger than the other, and while I waited the 
smaller had become so riotous as to spoil the wing 
fringes. After three days I found two eggs were laid 
by the largest moth, and from their appearance I had 
some doubt whether they were fertile. After a week 
had passed these two eggs, and four others laid subse- 
quently, had not changed colour and were shrivelling 
up, quite sterile. 

Accordingly, in the evening of the 18th of June I 
returned the male insect to the company of his former 
mate, and just as at first, a week before, they again 
coupled immediately, and were left alone, and I decided 
to let both remain together as long as they might live. 

Eggs now began to be laid, at first sparingly, then 
more numerously, on alder and oak leaves put for the 
purpose, and a few were laid on the side and bottom, 
and on the ieno cover of the pot. The egg-laying 
took place every evening at dusk, while on the wing 

VOL. iv. 2 


for some half-hour or so ; possibly also in the twilight 
of mornings. 

The male soon became shabby, and at length grew 
weak, though it came up to feed for a week or ten 
days, then kept down amongst the leaves two or three 
days, and died, worn almost past recognition. 

The gravid female continued to lay every evening up 
to the 7th July, when she too was exhausted, and died 
— after having laid the astonishing number of about 
315 apparently good eggs. Those on the jam pot, 
about twenty-five, I kept for myself ; all the others, 
laid on the leaves or leno, I gave away in batches to 
twenty-one persons, who had kindly helped me for 
some years with larval subjects for my pencil. 

The egg of alni is of a waxen whitish colour when 
first laid, and in a couple of days changes gradually to 
dingy purplish, with several pale dirty whitish spots 
on the surface. These, as the egg matures, grow 
whiter, and the purplish intervals become a reticulation 
of crimson ; its next change is to grow dark and dingy 
just a few hours before hatching, and this takes place 
about the twelfth or fourteenth day after the egg was 

The larva moults four times, and at each moult it 
devours the cast skin ; should it fail to do this, it 

It will feed on alder, oak, birch, sallow, hawthorn, 
blackthorn, rose, dogwood, elm. But whatever the 
food given it at first, it must be continued to the last, 
as it does not like to change from one kind of food to 
another; that, at least, is my own experience. And 
from its hatching up to the very last, it always, when 
not feeding, reposes with its head and front segments 
bent round by the side of the body ; indeed, it is very 
seldom that one finds it stretched out at full length, if 
not actually walking or feeding. 

When the larva is full-fed the yellow spots lose their 
brightness, and become in part greenish, and then it 
requires a piece of touchwood, or some stout pithy 


stem, or cork, or other similar substance, wherein to 
excavate the chamber requisite for its pupation. (W. 
B., Note Book IV, 71—73, and 148, 149). 


Plate LVII, fig. 3. 

A larva found on peach, September 19th, 1874, one 
and a half inches in length, moderately stout, segments 
plump and well defined, the twelfth with two slight 
dorsal humps behind, tubercles bearing radiating hairs. 

The ground-colour of the back as far as the spiracles 
deep ochreous, streaked and freckled with black ; on 
the back of each segment from the fourth to twelfth 
inclusive a large quadrate velvety-black area, contain- 
ing near its outer edge on either side an oblong 
squarish subdorsal blotch of pure white, the dorsal 
spot of bright orange being in the middle of the black 
at the front of the segment, and surrounded by the 
black area behind as far as the second tubercle, when 
the black is relieved by a thin transverse bar of bright 
orange-red, and this in turn by another bar of the 
freckled ground colour ; the spiracles white, set within 
a velvety-black shuttle-shaped mark, giving a strong 
relief to the white subspiracular stripe, which forms a 
projecting zigzag ridge; below this thewhole ventral sur- 
face and ventral and anal prolegs are deep smoky-brown. 
The five tubercles on each side of a segment have the 
dorsal pair very close together and pinkish ; the front 
one of these is situated on the hinder end of the white 
subdorsal blotch, the hinder one is a little nearer the 
side, the next below is brownish-grey, and the follow- 
ing one is red, on a bright red roundish larger spot, 
upon the white subspiracular stripe, which it inter- 
rupts ; the lowest tubercle is grey-brown. The hairs 
that radiate from the dorsal tubercles of the fifth seg- 
ment are dingy and smoke-coloured, and are some- 


what thick and tufted ; on the sixth segment they are 
pale flesh colour and whitish and less tufted, and still 
less tufted on the seventh, and only radiating on the 
following segments ; the front part of the thirteenth 
segment marked like the others, the anal flap dark 
smoky-brown, varied a little with brownish-ochreous. 
Segments 2, 3, and 4 are marked in a more linear 
manner, with white in the subdorsal region, though 
interrupted ; the subspiracular ridge is brownish-grey, 
with a spot of buff just above it on the third and fourth 
segments. Anterior legs blackish. The head black 
and shining, the lobes outlined on the front of the 
face, and marked on the sides with brownish-ochreous. 
Most of the hairs on the back and sides pale tawny 
flesh colour, with some few brownish-grey longer ones. 
From the way in which this larva carries itself in 
bending down the thoracic segments the fifth segment 
appears a little humped, more especially from the 
hairy tufts it bears. (W. B., Note Book I, 79, 85, 
and 100.) 


Plate LVII, fig. 4. 

During last summer, by the kindness of that indus- 
trious and expert collector, Mr. Meek, I had the oppor- 
tunity of figuring and rearing a larva of this species, 
which well deserves its name of auricoma. 

It was taken on oak, and both oak and bramble 
were given to it for food, and at length it seemed to 
prefer the latter, and on the 13th July it spun its 
silken cocoon on the underside of a bramble leaf, and 
the moth emerged on the 3rd of August. 

The full-grown larva was about one inch and a half 
in length, and cylindrical, but the head smaller than 
the second segment. Ground colour of the body and 
ventral prolegs a dark slaty-grey ; head and anterior 
legs black and shining ; a black plate on the second 


segment; all the segments divided by very narrow 
black bands ; a broad velvety black transverse band 
across the middle of the back of each segment, on 
which are placed four orange tubercles in the usual 
order, the anterior pair being much the longest, ex- 
cepting on the third and fourth segments, where they 
are of equal size and placed in a transverse row ; all 
the tubercles are furnished with bright golden-yellow 
silky hairs, which give the larva a very beautiful 
appearance. The spiracles white, ringed with black. 
The sides of the body slightly garnished with hairs of 
a pale drab colour. (W. B., 1, 67; E.M.M. Ill, 261, 


Plate LVII, fig. 6. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. George H. 
Kenrick, of Inverhadden, for the opportunity of offer- 
ing a description of the full-grown larva of this 
species, which I have proved by breeding the moth (as 
far as I know) for the first time. 

The larva, taken in Perthshire, reached me 12th 
September, 1869 ; it ate, apparently without prefer- 
ence, sweet-gale, sallow, heath, or ling ; spun itself up 
in a tough silken cocoon covered with moss on the 
15th, and the moth — a female — appeared on June 28th, 

I may mention that a Morayshire example of this 
larva, sent me for example about the same time by 
Mr. Longstaff, showed a decided partiality for birch. 

The Perthshire larva I figured on September 12th, 
and at the same time noted the following particulars. 

The larva was one inch and a half in length, mode- 
rately stout, the last three segments seen to taper a 
little to the anal extremity when looked at from above ; 
the head rather flattened in front, widest at the sides 
just above the mouth, and scarcely less than the second 


segment, but the two lobes were rounded and well 
defined on the crown ; the second segment was almost 
flat on the back, though all the other segments were 
remarkably rounded and plump, and the segmental 
divisions deeply cut. 

The ground colour was a rather smoky deep olive- 
green ; the head black and shining, the lobes outlined 
with pale olive, the base of the papillae lemon-yellow, 
the mouth olive-green ; the second segment had a 
black shining plate on the back, divided in the centre 
by a thin line of yellowish olive ; the third segment had 
an orange-red transverse central band extending to the 
subdorsal region and dividing a broad, oval, dorsal, 
black velvety mark, with an olive tubercle in front at 
each end; the fourth segment had a similar broad 
dorsal oval of black, bounded on either side by a large 
subdorsal lemon-yellow tubercle ; on each segment, ex- 
cepting the first two, there was a transverse black 
velvety broad band, somewhat saddle-shaped, and upon 
this, in the subdorsal region, from the fifth to the 
thirteenth segment inclusive, was a conspicuous lemon- 
yellow blotch, something of a triangular form, but with 
rounded angles ; the lower side marking well the sub- 
dorsal region, and bearing on its hinder angle, sloping 
upwards, two large wart-like tubercles of the same 
colour, and almost close together ; the spiracles were 
white, and situated in the bottom part of the velvety- 
black transverse bands, and a little above each, on 
black band, was an olive tubercle ; immediately beneath 
the spiracles was an inflated and rather punctured 
stripe of bright orange-red running along the sides ; 
below this were other olive tubercles, two on the 
lower side of each segment ; the ventral surface was 
also of the olive ground colour ; the prolegs were of a 
darker smoky olive, the anterior legs black. 

All the tubercles were furnished with fascicles of 
hairs of a smoky-olive tint ; those on the third segment 
were longer, more numerous than the others, and 
directed forwards to the crown of the head; some 


longer hairs also proceeded irregularly from the twelfth 
segment, pointing backwards. 

The Morayshire larva was much like the foregoing, 
save that it had black hairs mixed with the olive ones : 
its subdorsal blotches were less bright, though of a 
deeper tint of yellow ; and there was more orange than 
red in the transverse band of the third segment, as 
well as in the subspiracular stripe, which last also 
was interrupted at the segmental divisions. (W. B., 
8, 70; E.M.M. VII, 83, 1870.) 

Leucania conigera. 
Plate LVIII, fig. 1. 

On the 17th May, 1865, I received six larvae of this 
species from Mr. Dorney, of Brighton, which he col- 
lected for me on a very wet night, while they were 
feeding on Triticum repens and other grasses ; three of 
them were of a bright ochreous tint, and the others an 
almost uniform grey variety. They were all cylindrical 
in form, tapering but very little anteriorly, and an inch 
and a half long. 

In the first-mentioned variety the colour of the back 
was deep ochreous, the dorsal line pale sulphur-yellow, 
bordered on either side by a black line, and well defined 
in its entire length. The subdorsal line was rather 
broad, of equal width, and uninterruptedly black 
throughout, followed by a pale yellow line, finely edged 
below with black ; next was a stripe of pale ochreous, 
then another pale yellow line finely edged above with 
black and followed by a broad stripe of deep ochreous 
broadly edged with black both above and below, the 
black spiracles being along the lower edge. Above the 
feet was a stripe of pale dull ochreous, the belly and 
prolegs being slightly darker. On the back of each 
segment only the anterior pairs of black dots were 
visible. The head brownish, streaked, and mottled 
with black. 


The other variety was of a brownish-grey tint, with 
all the lines and stripes less distinct, but all disposed 
in the same order as above described ; but the yellow 
lines of the former variety were, in these, represented 
by lines of grey, and the ground colour of the back 
was brownish-grey. The dorsal line was grey, edged 
with black, and the subdorsal a continuous line of 
grey-brown, edged with blackish lines above and below, 
but interrupted above and nearly continuous below. 
The lateral lines and stripes were devoid of black, and 
delicately defined with brown edges. 

The larvae fed until the end of May, and the moths 
emerged between the 8th and 12th of July following. 
(W. B., 20, 9, 66 ; EMM. Ill, 137, 1866.) 

Leucania albipuncta. 

On the 26th of September, 1877, I received from 
Mr. J. Gr. Ross, of Bathampton, a cluster of eight or 
nine eggs laid by a ? of this species, which he had 
captured at Freshwater, at sugar, on September 8th, 
and kept alive with sugar, honey, and water. 

The egg is roundish, having a slight depression at 
some part of the surface, which is apparently smooth, 
and very polished, of a delicate straw-yellow colour, not 
changing colour till the 24th October, when these eggs 
became brownish-ochreous. (W. B., Note Book III, 

Leucania putrescens. 

Plate LVIII, fig. 5. 

On the 7th of October, 1864, I received three larvae 
from Mr. Johns, of Babbicombe; he continued on 
subsequent days, as weather permitted, to search for 
more in the neighbourhood of Torquay, and succeeded 
in securing another ; unfortunately, from casualties by 


ichneumons, &c, only one healthy larva went to earth, 
(12th of October), retiring half an inch under the sur- 
face, close to the roots of a tuft of a common grass 
(Poa annua), on which it had previously fed, and spin- 
ning a cocoon with particles of mould. 

The moth appeared August 3rd, 1865, a well-marked 

The larva was of a pale greyish-ochreous tint gene- 
rally, striped longitudinally after the manner of its 
congeners. The head mottled with dusky grey and 
ochreous, with a black streak bordering the front of 
each lobe, followed by a white streak on each side of 
the central portion. Dorsal line whitish, conspicuous 
only on the second, third, and fourth segments, after- 
wards nearly obliterated by the dusky edging enclosing 
it ; and on either side a dorsal broad stripe of mottled 
greyish-ochreous, followed by a pale ochreous stripe, 
and a greyish-ochreous darker stripe. The subdorsal 
line whitish, very finely edged above and below with 
dusky greyish-brown, followed by a broad stripe of 
mottled ochreous, then a lateral whitish line, finely 
edged with dark greyish-brown ; below this a broad 
greyish-brown stripe, the spiracles being situated 
along its lower edge, the belly and legs pale ochreous, 
The ordinary spots and spiracles black. The shining 
plate on the second segment dusky between the lines. 
(W. B., 3, 8, 65 ; E.M.M. II, 94, 1865.) 

Leucania littoralis. 
Plate LIX, fig. 1. 

On the 13th of May, 1864, I found full-fed larvse of 

Leucania littoralis at roots of Ammophila arundinacea ; 
I have met with these larvae for some years, having 
first, accidentally, in 1861, captured a small one, which, 
after feeding up and being duly figured, was reared ; 
when very young their colour is glaucous green, with 


longitudinal stripes, assimilating closely to the under- 
side of the almost cylindrical blades of their food- 
plant ; after April they leave their hiding-places and 
burrow beneath the sand, having by this time con- 
siderably increased in size, and having also become 
much paler in tint, some individuals being almost 
whitish green, others of a pale flesh colour. (W. B., 
B.M.M., I, 48, 1864.) 

Leucania comma. 
Plate LIX, fig. 3. 

Having for several seasons searched in vain during 
the spring for the larva of Leucania comma, I this 
summer, towards the end of June, obtained eggs from 
a female, which deposited them in a cluster on a tuft 
of Dactylis glomerata, at the axil of the sheath round 
a stem. In a fortnight they hatched, and for the first 
few days the larvae were exceedingly active and rest- 
less, crawling over the grass, spinning threads, and 
suspending themselves from the tops of their food ; 
after their first moult they settled well down to their 
food, and excepting in very bright sunshine, did not 
seem to shun the light. They had enormous appetites, 
and devoured the greater part of three large tufts of 
the grass, eating always from the top downwards. 
They did not increase in size after the 10th of August, 
but continued to feed nearly to the end of the month, 
when they retired an inch and a half below the surface 
of the earth, close to the roots of the plant, and spun 
silken cocoons with a slight covering of earth. On 
removing these on the 5th September one was broken 
(a proof of their fragile texture), and the larva was coiled 
up within alive, and looking rather smaller and darker 
than before it had spun. 

The larvae were striped longitudinally, and bore a 
very strong resemblance to their congeners, impura, 
jpallens, lithargyrea, 2^id.jpudorina. They were reddish- 


brown, dull ochreous-brown,or dingy greyish-ochreous, 
varying but little ; a thin thread of pale ochreous edged 
with dusky brown formed the dorsal line, on either side 
of which was a space of dingy brown, followed by a 
line of dusky atoms, and then a stripe of the ochreous 
ground colour. The subdorsal line brown, edged ex- 
ternally with blackish at the anterior portion of each 
segment ; next to it, a thread of pale ochreous edged 
with reddish-brown, then a broad stripe of ochreous 
ground colour edged below with reddish-brown, and 
again with pale ochreous in fine thread-like stripes ; a 
broad brown lateral stripe followed, at the lower edge 
of which were the black spiracles, with a broad pale- 
ochreous stripe below them ; the belly and legs 
ochreous-grey ; ordinary dots black when present, but 
not visible in some specimens ; head brown, streaked 
and mottled with blackish. The chief distinguishing 
character by which this larva can be known from those 
of L. impura and lithargyrea is the addition of the 
extra line between the dorsal and subdorsal. (W. B., 
12, 9, 64; E.M.M., I, 140, 1864.) 

Leucania straminea. 
Plate LIX, fig. 4. 

After waiting many years, I have at length had the 
satisfaction of figuring the larvaB of this species, and 
breeding the moths ; and now have the pleasure of 
offering some account of the larva, and of returning 
my thanks to the three friends who have helped me, 
viz. to Mr. Howard Vaughan, for the first examples, 
June 21st and July 5th, 1870, and again in June, 1871 ; 
secondly to Mr. C. G. Barrett, for larvae in April and 
May ; and thirdly to Mr. Henry Laver, in June, 1871. 

The chief food of the larva consists of the leaves of 
Arundo johragmites, though it will eat, and is sometimes 
found on, Phalaris arundinacea, as well as on other 
coarse grasses growing amongst reeds in wet places ; 


it remains on its food-plant and hides itself by day 
under and amongst the mingled leaves, and comes forth 
at night to feed ; from the structure of the prolegs and 
their terminal discs, it is enabled to obtain a firm 
footing on the smooth surfaces of the reed stems and 
leaves, without any danger of being blown off, or 
falling into the water over which it must be often 

The habits of the rest of the genus lead me to sup- 
pose that the larva is hatched in autumn and hyber- 
nates while yet small ; I have had individuals no more 
than half an inch long sent me at various dates from 
the end of April to the beginning of June, the growth 
of the reeds probably influencing the rate of their deve- 
lopment, but I found that when once they had begun 
to feed, they took about five weeks to attain full 
growth ; larvae which were ichneumoned lingered on 
longer, up to the time of the appearance of the first 
specimens of the imago. 

The larva in its immature state, when half an inch 
long, was very slender, of a dull greyish-brown colour, 
with an almost blackish dorsal line, and several faint 
lines along the sides, by the arrangement of which 
one identified it readily enough as a true Leucania ; 
afterwards, at each moult, it became a little paler and 
brighter coloured, its pattern of longitudinal lines and 
stripes remaining relatively the same. 

When full-grown it measured one and five-eighths 
to one and three-quarters inches in length, slender, 
and tapering a little at each end, especially towards 
the head, which was the smallest segment. It was 
tolerably cylindrical, the ventral prolegs rather long 
and well developed, the extremity of each furnished 
with a circlet of sharp hooks, the anal pair being 
usually extended behind in the line of the body, and 
the others often appearing a little sprawling according 
to the exigence of position; the head was slightly 
flattened above, and the antennal papilla? well deve- 
loped, projecting forwards in line with the head and 


body ; the skin was remarkably smooth, the segmental 
divisions being scarcely indicated — chiefly, in fact, by 
fine wrinkles forming themselves when the larva bent 
itself round in the graceful postures it assumed, when 
actively engaged in feeding. 

The ground colour of the back and sides was 
brownish-ochreous, but, with the exception of a stripe 
on either side the back, and another again lower down, 
this was thickly covered with minute, wavy, linear, 
greyish freckles ; the dorsal line dark grey, sometimes 
blackish-grey, having a fine central pale thread ; the 
subdorsal line similar to the dorsal, but rather paler, 
both in the central thread and in its lines of grey 
edging ; it was followed by the second stripe of the 
ground colour, then another pale line with dark edges, 
precisely similar to the subdorsal, though rather pale 
ochreous in tint ; below this was a broad stripe of 
the freckled ground colour, most strongly freckled 
along its upper and lower edges, and so little freckled 
along its middle region that sometimes a line of the 
plain ground colour could be seen there ; the spiracles 
were along the lower freckled edge, whitish-grey, 
faintly outlined with black ; the pale ochreous sub- 
spiracular stripe was still paler at its edges, the belly 
and legs being of the same colour, but a trifle deeper 
in tint ; the tips of the ventral prolegs were dark 
brown ; the head was brownish-ochreous, brown at the 
mouth and shining, as was also the upper surface of 
the second segment. 

I have distinguished all these markings as well as I 
could, but in truth, the whole surface is so much of 
the same depth and colouring, especially on the back 
and sides, as to produce a very soft uniform appear- 
ance. Even the tubercular dots appear wanting, 
though really they are present and even black in 
colour, but then they are so minute as not to be 
noticed without a lens. 

When the larva is full-fed it bends down a leaf of 
the reed, or fastens two or more leaves together, and 


there spins a slight and rather open-worked cocoon of 
greyish silk, the upper surface flattened, within which 
it changes to a pupa. The perfect insects appeared 
between the 7th of July and the 9th of August. 

To give some notion of the extent to which this 
species suffers from parasites, chiefly small ichneu- 
mons, though sometimes dipterous, I may mention 
that of twenty specimens sent me by Mr. Vaughan 
not one had escaped being stung, and, from those he 
retained for himself, he succeeded in rearing but one 
moth. (W. B., 11, 71 ; E.M.M., VIII, 248, 1872.) 

Leucania pallens. 
Plate LX, fig. 1. 

After many attempts to rear this species from eggs, 
I have at length succeeded, much to my satisfaction. 

The moth is common enough, yet the larva is not 
often found by collectors, even when specially search- 
ing for grass-feeders, as I have had ample proof 
through many seasons. Eggs, however, can readily 
be obtained, and in previous years friends have sup- 
plied me with them that duly hatched, but the young 
larvae always died or escaped when a few days old. 
When they leave the eggs they are exceedingly active 
and restless, evincing no desire for food, but seem 
bent on escaping from confinement; possibly the 
proper species of grass not having been supplied, 
previous broods having been placed on Triticum 
reopens and Dactylis glomerata. 

I am indebted to Mr. D'Orville for a further supply 
of eggs in September, 1865, which hatched during 
their transit by post, and the young larvae were put on 
a tuft of Air a csespitosa, and after a day or two of 
incessant exercise they settled to their food, eating- 
only the cuticle or green portions of the blades, leav- 
ing transparent patches on the grass. 

They appeared to hybernate in December, but as 


they were kept within doors all the winter, their hyber- 
nation was but partial, for I observed them once or 
twice on the tops of the grass in January or February, 
at that time about half an inch long, and much darker 
than most of their congeners at that stage of growth. 
When nearly an inch long they ate the grass through 
generally, from the tops downwards, remaining on it 
by day if their glass covering was shaded, but other- 
wise hiding close to the roots. 

The most forward one was full-grown by the 14th 
March, and the latest by the 30th May, 1866, the 
perfect insects appearing from June 4th to July 9th. 

The larva3 were cylindrical, with the ground colour 
ochreous, greyish, or greyish-ochreous, with a whitish 
dorsal line outlined with dark grey running through 
the middle of an oval shape of brownish-grey on each 
segment. The subdorsal line was whitish, margined 
above with a greyish stripe, and below by a thin 
brownish line, and after an interval of the ground 
colour, another fine line of brown, edged below with a 
thin line of pale ochreous, followed by a broad stripe 
of greyish, the black spiracles being along its lower 
edge ; below was a broad stripe of pale ochreous ; 
belly and forelegs oclireous-grey. The ordinary dots 
along the back dark brown, and very small. The head 
mottled with grey-brown. (W. B., 1866 ; E.M.M., III, 
08, 1866.) 

Tapinostola Bondii. 

On the 8th of July, 1881, I received several eggs of 
this species laid on the surface of a glass-topped box 
from Mr. Sydney Webb, who had sacrificed fourteen 

L females to obtain them, but one female, taken in cop. 
on June 29th, laid these eggs on the night of July 3rd, 
or early in the morning of July 4th. The eggs were 
in a group at the junction of the top and side of the 


parent moth ; three or four were laid singly about the 
side of the box. The shape of the egg is round or 
globular, with a slight depression on part of its sur- 
face ; the shell seems to be most minutely pitted ; the 
colour a light greenish-yellow and glistening ; by the 
15th July the eggs became of a slight tint of flesh 
colour, and showed at one part a faint spot of brown 
through the surface. 

In the afternoon of July 17th thirteen of the eggs 
hatched, and the young larvse seemed strong and 
crawled actively about the box ; their bodies were of 
the faintest tinge of flesh colour, with brown heads 
and plates (some were darker brown than the others) ; 
the anterior part of the thirteenth segment having a 
narrow plate beside the anal flap ; the plate on the 
second segment was narrow, and far back from the 
head, and was paler than the others. 

Without much hope I placed these larvae on striped 
ribbon-grass in a neighbouring garden, being unable 
to find their proper food, Festuca arundinacea, but I 
saw them no more; and when I sought for them in 
April, 1882, I found no trace of them on the stems. 

On the 12th July, 1883, I received another batch of 
eggs from Mr. Webb ; the larvse hatched on the 26th, 
and were put on Festuca arundinacea. (W. B., Note 
Book IV, 78.) 

Meliana flammea. 

Plate LX, fig. 3. 

I have to express my deep sense of thankfulness to 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher for his great kindness in supply- 
ing me with a dozen examples of the larva on the 18th 
of September, 1882, and on subsequent occasions with 
their food, which otherwise I could not have obtained 
for them, also for points of interest connected with 
the discovery of the larva by his friend, Mr. F. D. 
Wheeler, of Norwich, some three or four years ago, 


who, while collecting in the Norfolk fens, was interested 
in the appearance of this larva, and took some home, 
where they spun up in the heads of reeds, and yielded 
the moth in the following spring. 

I found, just as I had been instructed by Mr. Fletcher, 
that the larvse spent most of their time within the old 
hollow stems of Arundo phragmites, several harbouring 
together in a stem, wherein they lay stretched out at 
full length, one beyond another, and came out at night 
to feed on the leaves of fresh reeds, at first consuming 
a tolerable quantity, then less by degrees till towards 
the end of the month, when their feeding had entirely 
ceased ; each stem was now stopped up by a diaphragm 
or plug of pale whity-brown silk, spun across a little 
within each end ; at the same time I became aware of 
one larva having fastened two stems together that had 
lain side by side among the leaves, and it had cleverly 
utilised the situation by loosening a portion of the old 
sheathing leaf from one of the stems, and after creep- 
ing beneath this had, by means of silk threads, spun 
it firmly on both stems as the covering and protection 
of a sufficiently commodious puparium between them. 

On the 2nd of October, when about to place them 
in a cage for the winter, I noticed a larva much con- 
tracted in length, and fast approaching the pupal 
change, lying loose amongst the leaves ; beneath these 
at the bottom I presently found one had already 
become a pupa, and was lying there naked and unat- 

The two last mentioned, as well as those spun up 
in the stems, all disclosed fine and perfect specimens 
of the insect in this present month of June ; the first 
was bred on the 5th, and the last on the 15th. By 
means of gentle forcing Mr. Fletcher succeeded in 
producing the moth as early as the 1st of April, and 
afterwards quite naturally and freely, rather in advance 
of mine. 

A first view of the larva is very suggestive of an 
immature Leucania, more, perhaps, of straminea than 

VOL. iv. 3 


of any other species with which I am acquainted, 
though not in its general colouring, as it differs con- 
siderably from that species in having a much dingier 
appearance, matching fairly well some of the old reed 
stems ; moreover, on a close inspection it is seen to 
have an extra fine line on either side, in addition to 
the usual arrangement of fine lines alternating with 
stripes that are observed on a true Leucania. 

The full-grown larva of flammea was one inch two 
lines in length, apparently cylindrical, yet somewhat 
flattened beneath and slightly tapering at each end, 
the skin soft and smooth, the segmental divisions 
moderately well defined, and the usual subdividing 
fine transverse wrinkles also ; these were more notice- 
able at the sides, the anal prolegs rather splayed ; the 
ground colour above was greyish-ochreous-brown, 
faintly freckled with a darker fine reticulation ; beneath 
it was paler, inclining to greyish-drab ; the shining 
head delicately reticulated with darker grey-brown, 
the plate on the second segment a trifle darker than 
the ground of the back, and slightly glistening, tra- 
versed by the dorsal and subdorsal lines ; the dorsal 
line was pale and very thin, but well defined throughout 
its course by running between two fine lines of dark 
grey-brown, which rather conspicuously relieve it ; a 
little above the subdorsal region the ground was broken 
by a stoutish paler line ; then after an interval, or what 
might be termed a stripe of the ground colour, was 
the thin subdorsal line of a paler tint, closely followed 
by two other similar lines though more sinuous in 
character, these three being equidistant ; thence midway 
towards the spiracular region was a stout pale line ; the 
spiracular stripe, like the belly, was of a pale, some- 
what greyish-drab tint, well defined with an edging 
line both above and below of still paler tint ; the black 
dots of the trapezoidals were so minute as almost to 
escape notice, but the single black dots of the row 
along the side were larger, as also the row of two 
spots in line with the spiracles, which were whitish, 


tenderly outlined with black ; beneath were other very 
minute black dots ; the prolegs of the same tint as the 
belly, with dark brown hooks. 

The pupa was 1\ lines in length, of a slender, rather 
cylindrical figure, the head rounded above and pro- 
duced a little obtusely beneath, the thorax rather the 
stoutest part, otherwise the pupa was nearly of equal 
substance throughout ; the wing-covers of moderate 
length wrapped close to the body, the moveable rings 
of the abdomen deeply cut, each with an anterior 
margin of punctate roughness on the back ; the last 
two rings tapered to the anal tip, which was furnished 
with two very minute thorny points and curly-topped 
bristles ; its colour, at first light brown, soon became 
reddish-brown, and in twenty-four hours the darkest 
mahogany-brown, later to blackish-brown, the surface 
rather shining. 

After all the insects were bred, an examination of 
the interior of the stems showed one piece of four and 
a half inches long, having a knot at one-third of the 
length, and in this shorter division one puparium and 
a pupa skin, with its tail near the knot; on the other 
side of the knot in the longer division two pupa skins, 
one beyond the other, lying so that the tails of all 
three pointed towards the knot ; a diaphragm of silk 
mixed with gnawed particles from the lining membrane 
of the stem was at either end of each puparium, which 
in length varied from nine to eleven lines, and com- 
fortably held the shrivelled-up larva skin ; the dia- 
phragm in front of the middle occupant had been 
doubled in thickness, and probably this insect had to 
wait for its escape until the puparium in front was 
freed. Two other stems, about two and a half inches 
in length, contained two pupa skins in each, with their 
tails towards each other, three shorter pieces of stem 
had in each one pupa skin ; another stem three inches 
long was like all the others in being well lined with silk ; 
it held a single diaphragm, but was otherwise empty. 
(W. B., 27, 6, 83 ; E.M.M., XX, p. 63, 1883.) 



Plate LX, fig. 4. 

In the Manual of British Butterflies and Moths 
fulva is said to be the commonest of the small species 
of Nonagria, and therein is given from Treitschke a 
brief description of the larva ; yet it appears that in this 
country no one ever found the larva until Mr. John 
Sang, of Darlington, while in quest of another species 
of larva, found this one, and meeting again with it in 
the following summer, proved its identity by breeding 
the insect, as recorded by him in the Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine, vol. xvi, p. 110. 

Most obligingly redeeming his promise made to me 
on that occasion, Mr. Sang has this season again 
sought successfully for the larva of fulva, and kindly 
sent me for study — first, a very young example on the 
19th of June ; secondly, on the 9th of July, four fine 
larvae approaching maturity, thus affording an intense 
gratification in figuring this long-desired object. 

The habit of the larva is to mine downward within 
the inner white lower part of the triquetrous flower- 
stem of Gar ex paludosa, a few inches more or less 
above the root while young, and nearer the root when 
full-grown. It must be admitted that no external 
trace of its presence can be seen, for though a slight 
blackish discoloration does really exist, yet this is so 
completely masked by the close investing leaves as not 
to be detected without very strict examination. 

When the first little larva arrived I saw it was laid 
up waiting to moult, and not liking to disturb it then, 
made no further search for another doubtful smaller 
larva reported to be in the stem, and this eventually 
proved to be a Coleopteron of carnivorous propensity, 
to which fulva became a prey while in its helpless con- 

From the four larvna of fulva more matured I took 


away, to figure and describe, the first pupa, which 
subsequently died from mismanagement during my 
absence ; however, I had the satisfaction of breeding 
two fine moths on the 18th and 24th of August, and at 
this last date, while inspecting the plant for removal, I 
found the fourth, still a larva, though in the stage of 

The very young larva was smooth and glossy, of a 
creamy-whitish colour with a very distinct greenish 
dorsal vessel showing through the skin ; at the stage 
more advanced it had deeper colouring and decided 
brownish stripes, as I learnt from Mr. Sang. 

When nearly or quite full-grown the larva measured 
from seven- eighths to about an inch in length ; seen 
sideways it tapered very much anteriorly and very 
little behind, but when viewed from above on the 
back it appeared to taper only and very abruptly from 
the front of the third segment to the remarkably small 
flattened and taper head, the rest of the body being of 
uniform moderate stoutness, though very slightly taper- 
ing near the hinder segment ; all the segmental divi- 
sions were rather deep, and the subdividing wrinkles 
were deep on the third and fourth segments, slighter 
and more numerous on the others, and the skin much 
dimpled along the sides. 

It was of a pallid flesh-colour ground, having a 
deeper dirty flesh-coloured internal vessel sliding to 
and fro within the third, fourth, and fifth segments ; 
the head glossy, light brown, the mouth darker brown, 
and ocelli black ; the plate on the second segment was 
pale brown with rather darker front margin ; the 
dorsal stripe pale yellowish flesh-colour, very softly 
defined between two broadish stripes of faint pinkish 
grey-brown, followed below by another broad stripe of 
the pallid flesh-coloured ground, and this again by a 
broad stripe of pinkish grey-brown, through which 
one could perceive the tracheal thread of dark grey 
whereon the black spiracles were situated ; the rather 
rough anal plate was light brown, and there was also 


a narrow plate on the front part of the anal segment ; 
the dusky-brown tubercular dots were most minute, as 
usual with internal feeders they were largest on the 
twelfth segment, and were there just perceptible (by 
the aid of a strong lens) each bearing a short bristle ; 
the ventral surface was pale flesh-colour, the anterior 
legs light brown, the whole skin shining. 

When about to pupate all the stripes disappeared, 
and the skin became of a porcelain-white, strongly con- 
trasted with the black spiracles. 

The pupa was of a slender figure, measuring five- 
eighths of an inch in length, very uniform in substance 
throughout ; the thorax rather short and convexly 
rounded ; the head sloping forward was prolonged with 
a slight tendency to a beak, though rounded off at the 
very tip ; the wing-covers short in proportion to the 
length of the body, from the moveable segments of the 
body below them being longer than usual; the last 
three tapered a little, ending in a short blunt thorny 
projection ; the colour was light brownish-ocbreous 
with a faintly darker dorsal stripe, the anal projection 
dark brown, and the whole surface very glossy. (W. B., 
10, 9, 80; E.M.M, XVII, 114, 1880.) 


Plate LX, fig. 5. 

My best thanks are due to Mr. James Batty, of 
Sheffield, who took a long journey during inclement 
weather that he might search for the larva of this 
species, comparatively new to our lists ; and it may be 
supposed how much I rejoiced at the success of his ex- 
pedition, when on the 16th of May last I had the 
pleasure of receiving from him a consignment of grow- 
ing plants of Elymus arenarius containing several full- 
sized larvae. 

Of course I am not able to give any account of their 


earlier proceedings, but at the date above mentioned 
they were found feeding in that portion of the plants 
just above the root, where the blades of the grass 
spring upwards together, overlapping each other for 
about six inches or so, before they begin to diverge or 
fall apart, and assume the glaucous hue above the sur- 
face of the sand in which they grow. Nor when the 
larvae were full-fed did they change their abode, but 
spun around them a very slight, though tolerably firm 
cocoon, with gna wings of their food and particles of 
" frass," between two blades. The lower end of the 
cocoon, which was rather pointed, was sometimes 
mixed with grains of sand, the whole structure in 
shape being fusiform and about one inch and a quarter 
in length. Several moths emerged on the 4th of July, 
at 10 p.m., and made a short flight in my room as 
soon as their wings were dry, — one on the 8th emerged 
at midnight, and was ready for flight in a quarter of an 

The full-grown larva was from 1 to If inches in 
length, not very stout, cylindrical, and uniform in size 
except at the second segment, which tapered a little 
anteriorly, the head being still smaller and sometimes 
retracted into it ; the anal segment also tapered off to 
a rounded tip, in size about equal to the head. Its 
skin was plump and smooth, the segmental divisions 
very moderately incised, and the subdivisions delicately 
defined, the sides dimpled ; the head and plate behind 
it, the anterior legs, the anal plate, and the spots were 
all very shining, the rest of the body without much 
polish ; it was of a pale flesh-colour, the pulsating 
dorsal vessel being of a little deeper flesh tint; on 
each side of this dorsal stripe one could just discern, 
though very faintly, four transverse bars of a rather 
deeper tint of the ground colour on each segment, the 
broadest being in front ; the spiracles were black, and 
along their region the colouring was paler, more of a 
whitish- yellow, as though the interior of opaque white- 
ness showed through the flesh-coloured skin ; the head 


was reddish-brown, blackish-brown about the mouth ; 
the plate on the second segment pale yellowish-brown, 
two pairs of pale, oblong, yellow-brown spots were on 
the front division of the thirteenth segment, the anal 
flap covered with a plate of the same colour, having 
behind a fringe of fine brown bristles ; the tubercular 
dots of the back, and their excessively short bristles, 
were so very small as to be invisible without a powerful 
lens ; the anterior legs were pale brown, the prolegs 
tipped with dark brown. 

The pupa varied from five-eighths to three-quarters 
of an inch in length ; it was rather slender in form, 
smooth and shining, and of a light brown colour. 
(W. B., 11, 7, 71; E.M.M., VIII, 68, 1871.) 


Plate LXI, fig. 1. 

On the 30th June, 1870, several larvae of this species 
were forwarded to me by the Hon. Thomas de Grey, 
who very kindly sent me some of a number he had 
taken in the Norfolk fens, that I might not only figure 
the larva and pupa, bat also breed the imago ; unfortu- 
nately, however, whilst he had the good luck to breed 
four imagos on July 27th, all my larvae were infested 
with dipterous parasites, so that I did not see the 
pupa, nor have I since been able to obtain more 

The larvae were inhabiting pieces of the stems of 
Arundo phragmites, which had evidently been cut from 
the upper portions of the reeds, as they were perfectly 
fresh and green, varying in diameter from a quarter to 
three-eighths of an inch, and about fourteen to sixteen 
inches in length, and more or less sheathed with green 
leaves. The sign of a stem being tenanted by this 
larva was a small circular hole about a line in dia- 
meter, situated about five inches above the joint of the 


sheathing leaf ; the stems which I cut open for the 
purpose of examining the larva had, I found, been 
mined to the extent of at least twelve inches. 

The larva of neurica, when full-grown, was one and 
a half inches in length, remarkably slender, cylindrical, 
and of uniform size, excepting that the first two and 
the last two segments tapered a little; the lobes of the 
head well defined on the crown ; the anal extremity a 
little flattened above, and rounded in outline ; all the 
legs well developed, the anal prolegs extending beyond 
the anal tip and slightly divergent, so that the hinder 
segments were brought close to the surface on which 
it might happen to be ; by contrast the ventral prolegs 
appeared rather long. The segmental divisions and 
subdivisions not very strongly defined ; the skin soft, 
smooth, of a waxen texture, flesh-coloured, sometimes 
inclining to pinkish above, with paler flesh-colour 
below; the head reddish-brown, and very shining; 
mouth dusky-brown ; a shining plate on the front of 
the second segment, of similar flesh-colour to the rest 
of the body ; another polished plate on the anal flap of 
greyish-brown, and sometimes margined behind with 
darker brown ; the dorsal pulsating vessel could just 
be seen a little paler than the other parts of the back, 
with a darker patch or two in its course sometimes 
visible ; a delicate thread-like paler line was visible 
along the spiracles, which were small, of deeper flesh- 
colour, finely edged with black; the tubercular dots 
were smaller, of a darker flesh-colour, or brownish, 
and polished in texture, each with a very fine hair ; 
the anterior legs of the same colour as the body, the 
ventral and anal prolegs rather more transparent and 
shining, tipped with rather darker hooks. (W. B., 31, 
12, 73; E.M.M., X, 275, 1874) 



Plate LXI, fig. 2. 

I am happy to acknowledge my obligation to Mr. 
Howard Vaughan for my acquaintance with this 
fen-haunting species. I had hoped to obtain more 
information about its earlier stages, but after waiting 
since 1870 I have thought it best to publish what I 
know, so few fen collectors seeming to care about 

Two pieces of Arundo phragmites were sent to me 
on June 21st by Mr. Vaughan, each containing a larva 
of this species. The reeds appeared to have been cut 
rather low down towards the base, as they were not 
green and bore no fresh leaf, but were of a pale buff 
tint, somewhat like cane in texture, though on some 
parts there were remains of old dried leaf cuticle of a 
whity-brown or pale brownish-grey tint; the pieces 
had been cut with a knot left at either end ; the length 
between the knots inhabited by a larva measured 
about four and three-eighths to four and a half inches, 
the diameter three-eighths of an inch ; the sign of a 
tenant consisted of two orifices plugged from within ; 
the upper hole by which the imago escaped was five- 
sixteenths of an inch from the knot, and the oblong 
hole itself a quarter of an inch in length in a perpen- 
dicular direction, and its breadth a little more than 
one-eighth of an inch, spun over with grey silk, be- 
hind which were particles of pith adhering;* the 
lower hole was not quite in a line with that above, 
though both holes could be seen at once ; its distance 
from the lower knot half an inch, its length nearly a 
quarter of an inch ; the outline of the orifice was 
oblique and irregular, it being, in fact, composed of 

* Mr. Vaughan's impression is that the larva of geminipuncta does 
not quite cut through the reed stem, but leaves a thin film of the 
cuticle over the upper orifice as a protection, which sometimes, from a 
cause unknown, is wanting. — W. B. 


two perforations, the smallest, below, having an ex- 
cavated channel under a small piece of the reed cuticle, 
which led to the larger perforation ; this hole was 
stopped with grey silk from within, and altogether 
appeared less conspicuous than the other above de- 

One of the larves, which was extracted from its 
stem for the purpose of being figured, died on the 
25th of June ; the other was only looked at, and, the 
split in the reed which had been made for that purpose 
being carefully bound up again, it went safely through 
its changes, and appeared as a moth on July 23rd. 

The full-grown larva was of the usual Noctua form, 
one and one-eighth of an inch in length, moderately 
but not very stout, tapered a little just at each end, 
cylindrical, all the legs well developed. It was of a 
deepish flesh-colour, the skin without much gloss, of 
a wax- like texture in appearance ; the face and the 
lobes of the head were dark brown and shining, be- 
tween them on the crown the skin was pale flesh- 
colour ; the shining plate on the second segment was 
of rather a deeper flesh tint, and dorsally divided by a 
line of paler ; the plate on the anal flap was of a shi- 
ning pale brownish tint and semi-transparent; the 
dorsal vessel just visible as a stripe of a tint of flesh- 
colour barely darker than the ground; two parallel 
lines of faint whitish flesh-colour ran rather inter- 
ruptedly along the spiracular region, dimly suggestive 
of the branchial apparatus beneath the skin ; the oval 
spiracles were dark grey outlined with black ; the 
warty tubercular spots were shining, of a pale brown 
colour, each furnished with a very fine hair ; the 
anterior legs spotted with pale brown ; the ventral and 
anal prolegs greyish, tipped with darkish brown. 

The pupa, judging from the empty skin, seemed to 
be lying free in the interior of tbe reed stem, head 
uppermost; its length a little more than seven- 
eighths of an inch, rather slender, stoutest about the 
thorax, the wing-cases short in comparison with the 


length of the abdomen, which had its segments well 
divided, and was tapered off gradually to the tip ; 
the pupa skin rather smooth, but with little polish 
excepting in the abdominal divisions ; its colour a 
dark purplish-brown on the thorax and wing-covers, 
not quite so dark on the abdomen. 

The interior of the reed stem in which the pupa lay 
was smooth, and of an opaque, deep, sooty-brown 
colour, but without any lining of silk. (W. B., 27, 12, 
73; E.M.M., X, 230, 1874.) 


Plate LXI, fig. 3. 

I have to express my thanks to Mr. Sydney Webb 
for his kindness in not only supplying me with this 
larva, but also for details of its habits, which, by ob- 
servation, 1 have been able to verify completely, for 
the purpose of the following description undertaken 
at his request. 

From the end of July to about the middle of August 
these larvae, in various stages of growth, may be found 
within the lower compacted parts of the leaves of Iris 
pseudacorus ; sometimes two in one plant, but more 
frequently only one, where it will have the tender 
young central leaf in the very heart of the plant to 
feed on. It often migrates, however, not only from 
the leaves of one plant to another, but sometimes 
enters the culm or seeding stem, where, after feeding 
on the central pith down almost to the root, it retires 
to attack another plant, and when about half grown 
it frequently acquires a taste for Sparganium ramosum, 
inhabiting therein the basal part of the trigonous leaf ; 
or sometimes it enters the stem of Typha angustifolia, 
though in whichever plant it happens to be when full 
fed, there it remains in a perpendicular position, and 
changes to a pupa. 

When a larva gnaws a hole in a fresh plant of Iris, 


and enters therein, it throws out to some distance 
from the hole a quantity of pale " frass " during the 
first day or two, according to the size of the larva, 
but afterwards allows much to accumulate within the 
mine, where, turning to a darker colour, this often 
shows through the leaves when they are seen against 
the light ; but when the stem is entered the larva 
mines downwards, and ejects all " frass " from the 
mine, which throughout its length is of a diameter 
little more than that of the larva itself. There, a little 
below the entrance, the larva gnaws out a narrow and 
deep channel horizontally in the circumferent pith 
near to the outer cuticle, and another similar channel 
near the bottom of the mine. 

In order to observe the natural habits of the larvae 
it was necessary to have a number of the plants, grow- 
ing in pots with plenty of water, in the open air for 
them ; but at length, when too late, I found my con- 
fidence had been misplaced in allowing the larvae too 
complete freedom, for it resulted eventually in the 
escape of all but three. Notwithstanding this mishap, 
I was lucky enough to have one turn to a pupa on 
August 11th, and another on the 15th; the other larva 
in captivity was supplied continually with fresh-cut 
pieces of Iris standing in water, and fed well to the 
end of the month, but afterwards wandered about, re- 
fusing to make up for pupation, until it died, the very 
day on which the first pupa disclosed a fine example 
of the moth, at 4.35 p.m., September 10th. 

The young larva, when no more than three-quarters 
of an inch in length, was remarkably slender, very 
translucent and tender-looking, of a pale watery 
greenish tint, with pale brownish head, and plate on 
the second and anal segments, having on the body 
four fine longitudinal stripes of light olive-brownish 
or greenish, the spaces between them being slightly 
paler than the pale belly. This design continued to 
be developed with an increase of colour and distinct- 
ness in proportion to growth ; the substance of the 


larva, when it was about an inch and a quarter to an 
inch and a half long, was considerable, though still 
slender; the stripes stronger, brighter, and fuller 
green, yet somewhat of a transparent nature, for when 
folds of skin occurred at the segmental divisions, as 
they did when the larva was not stretched to its full 
extent, the stripes on the folds appeared darker, and 
the pale interspaces paler. 

The full-grown larva when extended was about one 
and seven-eighths to two inches long, and very slender, 
with all the legs fairly well developed, very cylindrical 
and uniform in substance throughout the body ; the 
head was of a full roundish form, broadest in front, 
glossy and of a pale brown colour, with still paler 
papillae, the mouth darker brown and the ocelli black ; 
the plate on the second segment and that on the anal 
flap were also pale brown and glossy ; the ground 
colour of the back and sides was light semi-transparent 
yellowish-green, that of the belly rather paler; the 
stripes, of a brighter and deeper green, were situated 
one on each side of the back and one below on 
each side close to the spiracles, the width of the 
stripes being nearly equal to the spaces between them ; 
the dorsal space was faintly of a deeper greenish, 
showing more or less the pulsating vessel ; the spiracles, 
narrowly ovate, were light reddish outlined with black ; 
the minute tubercular dusky dots were set within the 
green stripes, and though lightly ringed with the paler 
ground colour were inconspicuous, the legs furnished 
with brown hooks. 

When nearly full-fed it became shorter and stouter, 
growing more and more translucent as the stripes be- 
came fainter, the dorsal vessel plainly pulsating, and 
delicate ramifications of the tracheal system appearing 
through the skin. 

The pupa was about seven-eighths of an inch in 
length, moderately stout and nearly uniform in sub- 
stance throughout, being much of a cylindrical shape, 
though the upper parts of the thorax and short wing- 


covers swelled out a trifle more than the rest ; the 
head had a beak, or rather pointed frontal projection, 
and the longish abdomen sloped off beneath the end 
of the last segment to form an obtuse dorsal ridge 
with granulated surface, and having two minute blunt 
thorny projections wide apart, and a few minute 
bristles between them. The colour, at first pale 
whitish-green, changed gradually to brown, and in 
four days the head, thorax, and wing-covers became 
darkish mahogany-brown, the abdomen bright pale 
ochreous, and it remained so about twenty-three days, 
wben a further change to a dark purplish red came 
uniformly over the entire surface, lasting for four 
days, and then the perfect insect came forth ; thus the 
pupa state lasted about a month. (W. B., 13, 9, 79; 
E.M.M., XVI, 99, 1879.) 


Plate LXI, fig. 4. 

Larva elongate, brownish-ochreous ; head reddish- 
brown, a shining plate of the same hue on the second 
segment ; two fine dusky lines run down the centre of 
the back to the posterior segment, which is dark brown. 
There are two pale ochreous stripes along the sides, 
and below them are placed the black spiracles ; belly 
and prolegs paler ; the anterior legs whitish, tipped 
with dark brown. 

This larva feeds on the pith, within the stem, of 
Tyjpha latifolia (reed-mace), is full-fed in August, and 
about the end of the month changes within its abode 
to a long dark brown pupa, the tail of which is 
attached to the upper portion of the excavation, the 
head thus hanging downwards, and being one inch and 
a half from the hole in the outer rind, through which 
the moth emerges in September. (W. B., Zoologist, 
1865, p. 9513, where it is quoted from a more ephemeral 
magazine, Young England.) 



Plate LXII, fig. 2. 

My first acquaintance with the larva was in August, 
1862, when Mr. Hydes, of Sheffield, sent me six full- 
grown examples, reported to have fed on some kind of 
grass ; but as I could not then obtain any more precise 
knowledge of their habits, I contented myself with a 
figure from one of them, and that figure soon proved 
very serviceable in protecting me from an error, when 
a flower-head of Iris pseudacorus, with a larva of 
nictitans placed in it, was sent to me as that of Apamea 
fibrosa — a larva which in all the subsequent years has 
not yet been forthcoming ! 

However, sixteen years later, by a mere chance I 
was able to improve my acquaintance with nictitans, 
for on the 7th June, 1878, I happened to pick up a 
small stone that rested on a very little tuft of Poa 
maritima in gravelly soil, near a salt-water course, and 
found I had torn away with the stone a silken covering 
from a very young Noctua larva, apparently unknown 
to me, which I brought home as a prize to be ca.ref ully 
tended, watched, and figured. It soon moulted, and 
my interest in it increasing, I again visited the spot 
in about a week, when I found three rather larger 
examples, and again two more of them on the 20th 
June, while getting fresh tufts of the food-plant ; and 
in the same way subsequently two others. The larvse, 
when found, varied in length from a quarter of an inch 
to an inch, and it was only when approaching their 
last moult that I could suspect what species they were, 
though when they were nearly full grown my previous 
suspicion ripened into certainty of their identity, 
which in August following was confirmed when I bred 
the eight moths, comprising the usual sexual varieties 
of colouring, from the 4th to the 20th of the month. 

The habit of this larva is to feed on the bleached 


portions of the grass close to the soil, and to spin for 
itself there a case of whitish silk, closely and firmly 
invested with the food- plant, which forms at once a 
snug dwelling and protection, and in most instances 
the shelter afforded by a stone was utilized, even 
within a few inches of salt water. It rather surprised 
me to find this species in such a littoral habitat, never 
having met with it before, though I had known the 
moth taken at light in a grassy place bordering a wood 
four miles away inland, and understood that it occurred 
commonly on open moors and other similar localities 
in many parts of the kingdom. 

The young larva, when a quarter of an inch to three- 
eighths in length, is of ivory whiteness striped longi- 
tudinally with purplish-crimson ; the head white, with 
black ocelli and dark brown mouth. After a moult in 
about five days it assumes a little more colour, when 
the head is pale whity-brown, as are also the neck 
and tail-plates, each plate having two pairs of minute 
blackish-brown dots. The ground colour of the body 
is a faint greenish-drab, which shows transversely at 
the segmental divisions and in the wrinkles, as well as 
in the broadish dorsal stripe, the subdorsal and lateral 
stripes, and the whole of the belly. The alternating 
dark stripes are now of crimson-brown, broadest along 
the back, of which they mark the boundary ; the two 
below on the side are narrower and follow the sub- 
dorsal and lateral ones, the spiracles occurring at the 
bottom of the lowest. 

On attaining nearly the length of an inch its stoutish 
form is noticeably stoutest at the third and fourth 
segments. The darker colouring of the back and side 
stripes is now changed to pinkish-grey, and that of the 
pale stripes to a light, rather greenish flesh-tint ; the 
shining head is of a warm flesh-colour and dark brown- 
ish at the mouth ; the glossy neck- plate is light yellow- 
ish-brown, rather inclining to orange, thinly outlined 
with blackish-brown, but thicker at the front margin, 
where it is wavy within ; the anal plate is of the same 

VOL. IV. 4 


colour and similarly margined. The blackish-brown 
tubercular dots are very small along the back as far 
as the eleventh segment, then rather larger on the 
twelfth and front of the thirteenth. The oval black 
spiracles at the bottom of the lower grey side stripe 
are accompanied with blackish-brown spots, peculiarly 
characteristic, viz. one in front and one above of ordi- 
nary size, and a very large one behind the spiracle, and 
in corresponding position on the third, fourth, and 
twelfth segments this is even larger still and some- 
what trilobed in shape; two other rows of single 
spots, smaller and paler, occur below. 

When full grown the larva is about an inch and a 
quarter in length, rather broadest on the third and 
fourth segments, tapering thence a little to the head, 
also in a very slight degree to the anal segment, which 
is rounded oft behind. The characteristic head, plates, 
and spots remain as before, but the previous contrast 
of colours between the lighter side stripes and darker 
back is now greatly reduced, and the light broadish 
dorsal stripe also from its softened edges, and showing 
faintly within a slightly deeper, greyish, pulsating 

On entering the earth the larva encloses itself in an 
earthen cocoon of weak cohesion. The pupa varies 
from five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch in length, 
and is of stoutish proportion, of the usual Noctua 
form, the abdomen convexly tapering from the move- 
able segments to the anal tip, which ends with two very 
fine projecting points ; on the back of four of the middle 
abdominal rings, just at the beginning of each, is a 
narrow transverse band of punctate roughness, while 
all the other parts are smooth and shining, and the 
colour is of deep mahogany-brown. (W. B., 7, 1, 82 ; 
E.M.M. XVIII, 195, February, 1882.) 



Plate LXII, fig. 4. 

On the 22nd of June, 1869, I received from the 
Hon. T. de Grey a larva which proved to be that of 
this species, and, more recently, the following note : 

11 1 first observed the larva by pulling up, on the 
14th May, a sickly-looking plant of Equisetam arvense. 
It appeared to be feeding on the root and stem below 
the surface of the ground, but when placed in a bottle 
with a supply of the food-plant, it immediately entered 
a stem, and fed upon the inner substance, hollowing it 
completely out, and ejecting the frass at the lower end. 

" The larva moved readily from one piece into ano- 
ther, and throve upon this food till May 28th, when I 
supplied it with Equisetum fluviatile, on which it fed 
well till June 21st," 

On arrival this larva was an inch and one-sixteenth 
in length, rather slender, cylindrical, and tapering just 
a little at the posterior extremity, its head as wide as 
the second segment, the upper lip and mandibles 
large, the transverse folds and segmental divisions 
rather deeply cut. 

The colour of the back and sides down to the spira- 
cles was a rather deep purplish red-brown, without 
gloss, and a little paler on the thoracic segments and 
at the divisions ; the sides below the spiracles, the 
belly, and the legs were paler, and of a dingy flesh- 
colour; the head ochreous-brown, and mandibles 
blackish-brown ; a polished pale ochreous-brown semi- 
circular plate on the second segment, rather broadly 
margined in front with blackish-brown ; a small shining 
pale ochreous plate on the anal tip, having a terminal 
border of very small dark brown warts ; the other 
tubercular warts arranged in the situation usual in 
stem feeders, also blackish-brown in colour, and each 
emitting a fine hair ; the spiracles black ; the prolegs 
tipped with brown. 


At the beginning of July the larva had attained an 
inch and three-eighths in length, and had become 
moderately stout in proportion, having meanwhile 
gradually grown paler on the back, and by the 10th of 
the month the upper and under surfaces were both 
alike of a deep smoky dull flesh-colour, the dorsal pul- 
sating vessel just visible as a faintly darker stripe of 
the same ; the warts, however, still dark brown, and the 
head and plates as before described. 

Hitherto the larva had fed well on both species of 
Equisetum, but it now ceased eating, and began exca- 
vating a hole in the earth at the side of its pot, in 
which, by the 15th, it had changed to a light ochreous- 
brown pupa, but without forming any cocoon ! 

The pupa was three-quarters of an inch long, mode- 
rately stout, presenting no unusual peculiarity of form, 
but ending in an anal spike, which was inserted in the 
earth, and on the last two segments were a few fine 
short bristles pointing backwards. The moth emerged 
on the 14th of August. 

Soon after the above larva came into my possession 
I identified it with my figure of one sent to me by Mr. 
Steele, of Congleton, on the 10th July, 1866 (which 
proved to be infested with Microg aster alvearius), and 
also of some others in May, 1867, then quite small, and 
all of them feeding in the roots of dock, but which I un- 
fortunately failed to rear to the imago state. (W. B., 
10, 69; E.M.M. VI, 164, 12, 69.) 

Xylophasia lithoxylea. 

Plate LXIII, fig. 1. 

On the 10th of October, 1882, I received a very 
young Noctuid larva from the Rev. John Hellins, 
which he had beaten out from a bank. It looked to 
me at this time to be a very young example of Lujperina 
testacea, soon to moult, and its finely wrinkled skin and 


pale flesh-colour led to this belief. Its length was 
then about 4 lines. 

On the 13th it moulted, and was at once seen to be 
really a young Xylophasia by the plates and wart-like 
spots, now first distinctly to be seen, though at that 
time they and the head were whitish, the body having 
a light tint of pinkish-brown ; and on looking through 
my most powerful lens I could already discern, between 
the trapezoidal spots on the back, the six little whitish 
marks that to me had hitherto betokened polyodon, so 
that I began to feel confident I had before me the larva 
of that species. 

By the 23rd of October it had grown, and was of 
stouter build, but still of the same colour, with the 
spots still paler than the pale pinkish-brown ground ; 
it had made its hollow nest, big as a sparrow's egg, 
under a little tuft of growing Poa annua, and I could 
see where it came out occasionally to eat some of the 
whitish parts of the grass, just above the roots on the 
surface of the earth, the nest being formed close under 
the roots which overspread the hollow forming the 
domed roof ; and all the fibres retained the shape of 
the construction by a layer of silk spun beneath them, 
which formed the lining of the roof of the nest. 

By the 17th November the larva had grown; the 
ground colour was still a pinkish-drab, but the head 
and plates were of rather a deeper tint of the same, 
and it was curious that at this date I could find no 
trace of the little whitish marks on the back which 
had in the middle of October arrested my attention. 
The nest was now as big as a thrush's egg, which 
obliged me to supply it with a fresh tuft of the grass. 

On the 19th January, 1883, the larva, which had the 
head, plates, and spots unchanged up to the end of 
December, now showed them black. From this time 
it remained hybernating until the mild days near the 
end of February, when it waked up and fed spar- 
ingly, and again became torpid all through the cold 
month of March, and on the 1st of April showed signs 


of an approaching moult, and it moulted during the 
night of the 5th — 6th. 

By the 21st April it had grown considerably, and 
was an inch and a half long, the skin highly lustrous, 
of a light grey, having a faint tinge of greenish ; the 
head, plates, and spots all black and glossy. 

Towards the middle of May it retired into the earth, 
and soon turned to a pupa. The moth, a female 
lithoxylea, came forth in the evening of June 28th, 

The pupa skin had a rather narrower and louger 
spike than is found with its congener polyodon, which 
has it broader, a trifle shorter, and tapering, when 
compared together. Otherwise they are very similar, 
but polyodon is the stoutest. 

A larva similar to the foregoing was picked up while 
crawling briskly along a footpath through a corn-field 
in the evening of May 27th, 1883, and it retired to 
earth in the course of that night, and on the 9th July 
the moth, a fine female lithoxylea, came out, of rather 
a greenish-grey colour. This larva, whose head, plates, 
and spots were black like the foregoing, had the 
ground colour of its skin quite a decided green, whereby 
I felt almost sure it was lithoxylea. (W. B., Note Book 
IV, 186.) 

[The following notes on " Comparative descriptions 
of the larvae, &c, of Xylophasia lithoxylea and poly- 
odon " were published in 1875, having been penned 
by Mr. Buckler in November, 1874, many years before 
the foregoing description was written. — H. T. S.] 

From the great similarity that exists between the 
larvae of these two species, Duponchel, who had bred 
both insects from larvae in which he thought he could 
see no difference, was induced to consider them to be 
but varieties of one species, and I confess that for a 
long time after certain experiments made by myself, 
which seemed to end in a similar way, I felt strongly 
inclined to take the same view, and nothing but the 


firm and continued assurance to the contrary of my 
friend Mr. Doubled ay encouraged me to persevere, in 
the hope of eventually distinguishing the one larva 
from the other. 

Foiled year after year in my attempts to obtain 
eggs from the moths imprisoned for that purpose, and 
failing also to obtain them from friends, who could 
naturally, perhaps, feel but little interest in these in- 
sects of such common occurrence, I had to content 
myself with those single examples of the larvae that 
by chance occurred to myself, or were found and for- 
warded to me by friends at distant intervals of time, 
so that my investigation has unavoidably been of a 
somewhat desultory nature, and, in addition, has often 
been retarded, just when success seemed almost as- 
sured, by the vexatious circumstance of the disclosure 
of ichneumons in the place of moths. This last circum- 
stance also gave rise in my mind to doubts as to 
whether certain appearances, which I had figured and 
noted, might not have been due entirely to the pre- 
sence of parasites within the larva, and I felt compelled 
to wait on for further observation of healthy larvse. 

Thanks to the kindness of the Eev. H. Williams, of 
Croxton, my desire has been fulfilled, and my work in 
this difficult matter accomplished during the season 
now closing, and in the hope of interesting some of 
the readers of this magazine I venture to submit my 
notes of both species of larvse for publication ; at the 
same time acknowledging the kindness of Mr. W. 
Machin, who at the end of March, 1871, sent me two 
larvse found by him at the roots of grass, and by so 
doing, as the event has proved, helped me to both 
species at once. 

Both species of larvse are alike in figure and struc- 
ture, having tough, smooth, shining skins, and still 
more lustrous dark heads, plates, and spots. They 
are irritable in disposition, and this circumstance, 
added to the lustre of their surface, renders very close 
inspection necessary to arrive at their identification. 


They are cylindrical, and tapering a little from the 
third segment to the head, and again from the eleventh 
to the anal extremity ; the third and fourth segments 
subdivided by transverse wrinkles, the others plump, 
well defined, and puckered a little along the sides ; the 
usual dots in both species assume the character of 
tubercular warts, each furnished with a hair. Like the 
head and plates they are black or blackish-brown in 
colour, and in shape and arrangement are found as 
follows : the central transverse series on the back of 
the third and fourth segments are oblong, and are pre- 
ceded and followed by a fusiform transverse spot, dor- 
sally divided by a thin line of the ground colour, which 
is also seen to divide the anterior plate, while on the 
sides of these two segments are grouped several more 
or less roundish spots. On the back of each of the 
other segments (save the last) are four large black 
spots, the trapezoidals ; these have the first pairs 
round, the second pairs roundish-ovate. Along the 
sides of each of these segments are grouped five spots 
in this way ; the spiracle is surrounded by four of them, 
viz. a large one above and below, one behind much 
smaller, and the smallest, a mere dot, in front ; the 
fifth spot is the lowest, and where the ventral prolegs 
occur is borne on them; the thirteenth segment has 
spots in front and a plate behind ; the ventral and 
anal prolegs are broadly barred near their tips, which 
are fringed with hooks of the same colour as the head 
and plates. 

Lithoxylea, full grown, is about an inch and a half 
in length, and stout in proportion ; its brownish-grey 
ground colour has a slight fawn tinge in it, and is but 
little paler below the spiracular region, though the belly 
has a faint tinge of greenish. The pulsating dorsal 
vessel is of a deeper tint than the back ; the upper lip 
darkish fawn-colour, the antennal papillae a little paler ; 
the anterior legs fawn-colour, and often tipped with 
blackish ; spiracles black. 

Polyodon, when full grown, varies in length from 


an inch and a half to an inch and six-eighths, and is 
often very stout. Its colour is either grey, brownish- 
grey, or lurid deep reddish-grey, varying in intensity, 
and there is a variety banded across the middle of 
each segment with darker grey than the ground colour ; 
these bands are not abruptly defined, but melt away 
to the paler ground colour. Another variety occurs 
in which the back is dark purplish-grey, changing 
gently along the spiracular region to a dingy brownish- 
red, which is on all the lower parts of the body, while 
the head is dingy purplish-red ; but, whatever the 
general colouring, the pulsating darker dorsal vessel 
shows in a subdued manner through the skin. Within 
the area of the trapezoidal spots on the bach there a,re on 
each segment, from the fourth to the twelfth, six pale 
grey marks ; namely, a pair of transverse short curved 
and pointed streaks, ivith their broadish bases separated 
only by a mere line on the middle of the back, and rather 
close behind them four round dots, which range in a 
transverse row between the hinder pair of the tubercular 
spots. Along the spiracular region the paler colouring 
of the lower part of the body is generally well con- 
trasted with that above ; the spiracles black, some- 
times grey outlined with black, the upper lip greyish- 
brown ; anterior legs the same colour, though often 
spotted and tipped with black : the black spots on the 
sides of the third and fourth segments occasionally 
vary both in number and shape. (W. B., 28, 11, 74; 
E.M.M. XI, 208, 2, 75.) 

Xylophasia polyodon. 

Plate LXIII, fig. 2. 

A larva received May 13th, 1875, from Mr. Forbes, 
of Edinburgh, found by him under stones on Arthur's 
Seat — supposed to be Mamestra furva. It was eating 
close to the roots of various grasses, and looked ex- 
tremely like a purplish-brown polyodon. By May 20th 


it had grown in size, and was much paler, especially 
below the line of spiracles, looking even more like 
polyodon than at first. 

This larva continued to grow and became gradually 
paler and greyer, more like polyodon ; the pale streaks 
between the trapezoidal spots became visible, and the 
pale dots more transversely elongate than usual. 

On June 8th I found it had changed to a pupa. 
The moth X. polyodon emerged July 9th. (W. B., Note 
Book II, 191.) 

See also under the preceding species the compara- 
tive descriptions of the larvae of Xylophasia lithoxylea 
and polyodon , pp. 54 — 57. 

Xylophasia hepatioa. 
Plate LXIII, fig. 3. 

On the 19th of September, 1876, I received from 
Mr. W. R. Jeffrey a small Noctua larva, which he had 
found in a folded brown leaf of Stachys sylvatica, and 
which had moulted a day or two before the 18th. It 
was only three- eighths of an inch long when it came, and 
was of a middle tint of brown, a little paler below the 
spiracular region, and was remarkable from having on 
either side of the second segment on the light brown 
shining plate a conspicuous and very dark brown 

The larva refused to eat Stachys sylvatica and all 
other kinds of food until grass was supplied, and then 
it began to feed, and on the 27th it moulted and again 
took to grass, seeming to prefer Dactylis glomerata to 
either Air a c&spitosa or PhaJaris arnndinacea , and by 
October 14th it had become a trifle over three-quarters 
of an inch long, and of moderate stoutness ; the head 
brown and shining, plate on the second segment brown, 
finely divided by a very thin dorsal and broader sub- 
dorsal lines of a pale yellowish ; below these last the 


plate is filled in with very dark blackish-brown, still 
conspicuous as at first ; the ground colour is of a dark- 
ish purple grey-brown, much and finely freckled with 
darker; through this runs the paler ochreous-brown 
dorsal line ; a faint subdorsal stripe of unfreckled 
ground colour, edged with coarser freckles, can just be 
discerned ; the tubercular spots blackish-brown ; above 
each spiracle is a larger tubercular spot than any of 
the others ; the spiracular region and belly reddish- 
ochreous freckled, but paler than the back ; the spira- 
cles of the same colour, finely outlined with blackish ; 
the shining plate on the anal segment has paler dorsal 
and subdorsal lines. 

At the beginning of November it moulted again, and 
now the plate on the second segment was all black 
alike, with the exception only of the pale lines ; the 
larva now, in all its details, showed itself to be unmis- 
takably X. hejpatica, though of a darker purplish-brown 
and less grey than those full-fed examples of this 
species which I have myself found in the spring. 

This larva continued to wake up and feed at inter- 
vals up to the 1st of January, 1877, when I noticed 
its length was somewhat less than before, though still 
alive ; but on the 7th I found it dead. (W. B., Note 
Book III, 154.) 

Xylophasia scolopacina. 

Plate LXIIT, fig. 4. 

I am indebted to Mr. Batty for two healthy larva3 of 
this species. They feed on coarse grasses and a 
species of wood-rush. Their bodies are uniformly 
cylindrical and slender. The head and plate on the 
second segment are of a translucent greenish tint, and 
there is a black mark on each side of the mouth. 
Ground colour of the body olive-green above ; on the 
back a fine thread-like line of yellowish or pale grey- 
ish, enclosed by two others of dark grey, which form 


the dorsal line and run through a series of slate- coloured 
elliptic marks. The subdorsal is a narrow line of slate- 
colour, beginning at the third, and after the fifth seg- 
ment merging into a broad lateral stripe (which com- 
mences on the second segment) of dark slaty-grey, 
most intense at its lower edge ; just above which, on 
each segment, is a large blackish shining tubercle, 
furnished with a bristle ; the ordinary dorsal tubercu- 
lar spots small, with minute hairs. The spiracular 
region bright sulphur-yellow, and the belly greenish. 
( W. B., 3, 6, 64 ; "E.M.M. I, 50, 8, 64) 

Xtlomyges conspioillaeis. 
Plate LXIII, fig. 6. 

For the ability to publish some account of the 
preparatory stages of this rare species I have to thank 
Dr. Wood (of Tarrington), whose eyes were keen 
enough to detect a moth resting near the ground on 
an old gate-post, looking, for all the world, like a 
splinter of the wood on which it was sitting. My friend 
had previously found others in similar situations, but 
this was the first female, and, luckily, it proved fertile. 

The moth was found on June 4th, 1877, and she 
deposited her eggs in clusters on the sides of a chip 
box during the night of June 5th. In the cluster sent 
to me on the 9th I found them lying three deep, but 
cannot say if in nature they would have been laid so 
thickly ; possibly they might, for some species I know 
— such as Tseniocampa miniosa and gracilis — lay all 
their eggs in one dense heap. 

The larvae were hatched on June 14th and 15th, and 
ate about half the cluster of empty egg-shells before 
settling down on the food supplied, viz. Lotus cornicu- 
latus. The first moult took place on June 20th and 
21st, the second on the 27th and 28th, the third about 
July 5 th, the fourth from the 12th to 15th of July, 


and the last was accomplished by the most advanced 
larva on July 26th, followed by others at intervals. 
After this some deaths occurred among my stock, 
and in addition to the food previously given, viz. L. 
corniculatus and occasionally Polygonum aviculare, I 
now gave them Lotus "major and Euonymus eurojodeus, 
and afterwards I learnt from Dr. Wood that I should 
have supplied them chiefly with the flowers of L. corni- 
culatus, which he found his larvae preferred to the 
leaves. The first two full-fed burrowed into the earth 
on August 5th, and were followed not long afterwards 
by some others, though two individuals chose to re- 
main up to the last on the surface, where they pupated 
without making any attempt to cover themselves, 
whilst those which had entered the earth formed 
therein a thick and tough cocoon of earthy particles, 
looking as though they had been kneaded up with 
fluid, the result being of the texture of a worm-cast, 
the interior very smooth. The moths appeared on 
April 17th, 18th, 19th, and 22nd, 1878. 

The egg is of a regular round shape, convex above 
and depressed on the under surface, the shell orna- 
mented with numerous fine ribs and reticulations. 
When first laid the colour is pale bluish-white, by the 
fourth day changed to a light pinkish-grey, with a 
zone round the middle and a blotch on the top of light 
brown, which, deepening day by day, makes the pale 
ground still paler by contrast, until the ninth day, 
when the whole egg becomes uniformly of the hue of 
the bloom on a cluster of purple grapes, and in a few 
hours the larva is hatched. 

The newly hatched larva has a very pale and trans- 
parent, pinkish-grey body, and a pale brown head, the 
dorsal vessel showing blackish-brown through some of 
the segments; but after food has been taken and growth 
commenced the skin shows glossy, light yellowish 
watery green, with minute black dots. After the first 
moult the colour changes to a more opaque bluish- 
green, still with the black dots, and with a paler 


widish dorsal and narrower subdorsal lines ; the head 
of a yellower green, sprinkled with black atoms. 
After the second moult the same tint of green is re- 
tained, with the dorsal and subdorsal lines as before, 
but now a still paler spiracular stripe appears, and in 
this stage — when the larva is about three-eighths of 
an inch long — it is much like the young larva of 
Tdeniocampa gothica, except that it is more slender, and 
the pale lines are not so white or so sharply defined. 
After the third moult the colours are much as before, 
but now the spiracular stripe is decidedly greenish - 
yellow or ochreous-yellow, and the tubercular black 
dots are imperfectly ringed with whitish-yellow. After 
the fourth moult the general colouring, though deep 
and of sober richness for a time, gradually grows paler, 
and three varieties could be noticed, brownish-green, 
ochreous-green, and one or two light brown ; the 
markings as before. 

When the larva is about an inch long the last moult 
occurs, and the size and colouring become that now to 
be described as belonging to the full-grown larva. The 
length is from an inch and a half to an inch and five- 
eighths, the figure tolerably stout, cylindrical, yet 
tapering very little at either extremity, the eleventh 
and twelfth segments being rather the thickest, and 
all the divisions very slightly denned ; the skin soft and 
smooth. The colour of the glistening head is pale 
pinkish-drab, with a blackish-brown streak down the 
front of each lobe, a finer streak at the side, and deli- 
cate reticulations on the other parts. The ground 
colour of the back and sides isochreous-greenish brown, 
very much, but finely, freckled with brownish-grey ; 
the second segment is thickly freckled with dark grey- 
brown, and edged on the front margin with very dark 
grey, through which, rather distinctly, pass the fine 
thread-like dorsal and subdorsal lines, a trifle paler 
than the ground ; but on the rest of the body they are 
of the ground colour, merely relieved with outlines of 
grey-brown, and can only just be traced in their course, 


more or less interrupted, along a series of double 
dorsal diamond-shapes of close darkish grey freckling, 
within a larger diamond outline of freckles on the 
back of each segment. Each of the small tubercular 
spots, which are ranged in threes on either side of the 
dorsal region, is of cream- colour or pale drab, bearing 
a dot of blackish-grey on its upper margin ; lower on 
the side is a single similar tubercular spot, below which 
the grey freckles form a dark contrasting edge to the 
paler, widish spiracular stripe of reddish-drab or 
flesh-colour, most delicately freckled with whitish. 
The spiracles are pale flesh-colour, finely outlined with 
black ; the side below them, with the legs, is of similar 
freckled ground colour, but rather paler than the back, 
and the belly is unfreckled. 

The pupa is nearly five-eighths of an inch in length 
and about a quarter of an inch in diameter, of some- 
what dumpy shape ; the head and thorax thick and 
rounded, the three flexible rings of the abdomen well 
cut at the divisions, their anterior edges having punc- 
tate roughness, convexly tapered towards the rather 
blunt tip, which is furnished with four diverging 
shortish spines, the outer pair much the shortest. 
The colour is dark purplish-brown, and the surface 
shining. (W. B., 30, 4, 78; E.M.M. XV, 17, 6, 

Aporophyla australis. 
Plate LXIV, fig. 1. 

On October 5th, 1867, Mr. Thomas Terry, of Babbi- 
combe, gave Mr. Hellins some eggs of this species, 
laid by a captured ? about three weeks previously. 

On the 16th October the larvae began hatching; 
they fed on Poa annua and other smooth grasses and 
chickweed, and being kept in a warm place (out of 
doors) did not seem to hybernate, but fed slowly 
through the winter, and by the end of January, 1868, 


were half an inch in length. From this time they 
fed and grew more rapidly till April, and all of them 
had gone to earth by the middle of that month. The 
moths appeared September 22nd to October 10th. 

The egg is full and round in shape, with about 
twenty ribs, of which a third meet at the top, and the 
rest stop short in the angles formed by their junction, 
all connected by transverse reticulations ; the ground 
colour pale yellow, but splashed with purplish-pink. 

The larvas when hatched are greenish, with a black- 
ish tinge on the back of the front segments ; the head 
brown ; the underside paler than the back ; the usual 
dots distinct, each furnished with a stiff bristle. 

After a moult they become smooth, of a full green 
colour, with a darker dorsal line and a whitish sub- 
spiracular stripe, the folds showing yellow, and so they 
continue to near half an inch in length. 

When this size has been attained varieties begin to 
develop themselves, some remaining wholly green with 
double purplish -red dorsal lines, while in others the 
subspiracular stripe becomes edged above by a spira- 
cular line of purplish-pink. 

At the next change the dorsal purplish-red lines 
open on the centre of each segment, disclosing a pale 
pinkish diamond, and the subdorsal faintly appears now 
as a fine double pinkish line. 

The next moult produces a further development 
quite characteristic of the adult. The larva is now an 
inch long ; in some the green of the back is of a 
yellower tint, and the sides a bright rose-pink; in 
others a brilliant grass-green, and sides purplish -pink. 
At this stage the dorsal line is flesh-colour edged with 
pink or red, and on the front of each segment is a pair 
of short black marks placed obliquely, so that but for 
the dorsal line they would form a A with its apex point- 
ing forwards ; the subdorsal line is also marked with 
black at the beginning of each segment ; the subspira- 
cular stripe yellowish. 

The full-grown larva is one of the handsomest and 


most gaily coloured of the Noctux, is one inch and five- 
eighths in length, rather stout and cylindrical, slightly 
tapered towards the anal tip. 

The ground colour is now a very brilliant yellow- 
green, or, in some individuals, greenish-yellow; the 
head green, freckled with reddish ; a red unpolished 
semicircular plate on the back of the second segment. 
On the back of each of the other segments is a red 
diamond, the front part of which for about a third of 
its length is black, through which runs the flesh- 
coloured or pale pinkish dorsal line, edged with red, 
thus cutting what would be a black triangle into two 
black wedges pointing forwards. In the centre and 
sometimes in the hinder portions of the red diamonds 
the dorsal line often becomes suffused with their colour. 
The subdorsal line black, but only at the beginning of 
each segment. The spiracles white, placed in semi- 
circles of black, and the space between them and the 
subdorsal line thickly freckled and streaked with deep 
red, appearing like a broad band of red along the side ; 
the subspiracular stripe very pale primrose-yellow, its 
lower edge softened a little into the ground colour, and 
followed below by a blotch of red or pinkish on each 
segment ; the prolegs tipped with the same colour ; the 
ventral surface pale yellowish-green. 

Yar. 1. The ground colour a rather deep reddish- 
pink on the back and sides. The freckled side band 
and dorsal diamonds of darker purplish-red, with all the 
other details as in the preceding. 

Yar. 2. Ground colour of the whole surface olive- 
green, but appearing on the back only at the beginning 
of each segment as a transverse narrow band, in which 
can be seen the pinkish- white dorsal line and the black 
wedges, though much shortened ; the rest of each seg- 
ment is covered by a broad, transverse, dark purplish- 
brown band extending to the spiracular region and 
hiding all other marks, each white spiracle in a large 
black blotch connected with a narrower blackish- 
brown transverse band on the ventral surface of each 

VOL. iv. 5 


segment ; the head, entire second and half the third 
segment, anal tip, and legs, also a faint spiracular line 
visible only on the anterior segments, are all of the 
olive-green ground colour. 

The pupa is subterranean (but not enclosed in a hard 
cocoon) ; its shape is very cylindrical, tolerably even in 
bulk throughout, but rather thicker in the middle, very 
smooth, the tail ending with a small spike ; its colour 
a rich brown, and polished. (W. B., E.M.M. VI, 13, 
6, 69.) 

Plate LXVI, fig. 5. 

In the course of July, 1866, Mr. Batty kindly sent me 
some young larvae, said to be this species, which he had 
reared from eggs on Polygonum aviculare, and to which 
food they adhered entirely although I supplied them 
with Silene inflata and other plants ; they were full fed 
by the 10th of August, and to the last retained their 
colours and markings. The following year sped on, 
but without the appearance of any imago, and when 
their pot was emptied of contents no pupa was found, 
but only some few shrivelled-up larval remains. 

This larva was cylindrical, and tapered very little at 
the posterior extremity, and was altogether very uni- 
form both in size and tint ; the whole of the back and 
sides to the spiracles being of a greenish-drab, or 
else of a reddish-drab colour, delicately marbled with 
darker tints of the same ; while along the spiracles 
there was a faint whitish streak, and a very sinuous 
interrupted dark streak running through it. The spi- 
racles were very small, of the ground colour, outlined 
with darker drab ; a slightly paler dorsal line, outlined 
with darker, could just be seen, chiefly on the anterior 
segments ; and amongst the fine marbling could also 
be discerned a fine and rather sinuous subdorsal line ; 
another, similar but rather more continuous, ran between 


this and the spiracular region; the belly and legs of 
the ground colour, but paler and without markings ; the 
head and plate on the second segment light brownish ; 
the anterior legs drab colour, the prolegs tipped with 
brownish hooks. (W. B., Note Book II, 179.) 

Heliophobus popularis. 
Plate LXIV, fig. 2. 

[I find it needful to begin my notice of the larva of 
this species with the following " Note on the Larvao of 
Heliophobus popularis, Charseas graminis, and Luperina 
cespitis" published by Mr. Buckler more than twenty 
years ago — in February, 1869, in the Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine, v, 225.— H. T. S.] 

Through the kindness of correspondents I have 
been supplied in different years with the eggs of all 
these three species, and have reared the larvse from 
them to full growth ; and as I became acquainted with 
one species after another, I could not help being struck 
with the great similarity of appearance presented by 
all three when full grown. 

In fact, from not being at the first prepared for this 
similarity among them, I found it necessary to rear 
each species a second time in order to make sure of 
the distinctive markings of each ; but this having been 
done, and several figures having been carefully de- 
lineated, I feel I can now offer a few remarks which 
may be of use in helping others to separate them. 

The early history of each is similar ; the straw- 
coloured eggs are laid in autumn, and undergo one or 
two changes of colour — the last not long before the 
larvae are hatched — some time in spring, the exact 
date varying according to the character of the season. 

They all feed on grass, showing no decided prefer- 
ence beyond that of choosing the smooth and hard 
grasses rather than hairy and woolly species ; they 


feed up in summer, retire underground, and make neat 
oval chambers for their retreat during pupation ; and 
the moths appear at the latter end of summer or be- 
ginning of autumn. 

When young the larvae all show a greenish hue, 
with whitish lines — graminis and popularis beiug of a 
paler, more olive tint; while cespitis is of a bright, clear, 
full green, with the lines also of a purer white than in 
the other species. 

I have noticed that popularis, when about half grown, 
shows a very beautiful opalescent pinkish gleam of 
colouring about the ventral legs and belly, which I 
have not observed in the other two. By degrees, in 
all of them the green becomes darkened with brown, 
and a metallic or bronzy lustre makes its appearance, 
until at last the full dress is assumed, which I now 
proceed to describe. 

In shape all are similar ; the head is full and rounded, 
the body stout and cylindrical, thickest in the middle, 
and tapering towards each extremity ; when disturbed 
they do not curl up, but bend their head and tail to- 
gether on one side. 

But in size, as might be expected from the moths, 
they differ ; thus popularis, when full grown, measures 
fully If inches in length, cespitis 1-|, and graminis If ; 
and their bulk is in proportion to their length. 

Next as to colour and ornamentation ; all three are 
much alike in hue, and all have five conspicuous stripes, 
arranged as dorsal, subdorsal, and subspiracular. 

The colour of the head is brown ; and that of the 
back, as far as the spiracles, is a deep brown-greenish 
or smoky brown, bronzy and very shining ; a black (or 
at least darker than the ground colour) semicircular 
plate on the second segment, on which commence the 
dorsal and subdorsal stripes, in colour pale pinkish- 
grey, greyish-ochreous, or pale brownish, widening a 
little in the stoutest part of the body, and gradually 
narrowing again till they converge and meet at the 
tip of the anal flap, which is covered with another 


black plate ; these stripes are edged with black, and 
freckled with grey or brown along their middle. The 
spiracles are black, and immediately beneath them 
comes the subspiracnlar pale stripe, edged and freckled 
like those already described. 

The legs and prolegs are greyish-green or brown, 
the latter ringed with darker brown, or with a brown 
spot above their extremities; the ventral surface vary- 
ing in tint, but in all shining and semi-translucent. 

Owing to the brilliancy of their skin, the play of 
light on the polished surface makes a close scrutiny in- 
dispensable to detect all the distinguishing marks of 
each species ; still such are to be found, especially in 
the region of the subdorsal and subspiracular stripes. 

Popularis, then, has a rather pale narrow line, edged 
with blackish, running along midway in the space above 
mentioned, all the pale stripes being uninterrupted. 
Perhaps, too, the bronzy gloss of the back is warmer 
in this species ; while the belly, though paler than the 
back, is more dusky than in the others. 

Graminis has also a pale line running between the 
spiracles and the subdorsal stripe. In this species 
the segmental folds offer a good character, being 
smoother and of a different tint from the back — in 
fact, catching the eye as narrow transverse bands ; the 
whole skin also is much wrinkled transversely; and 
there are transverse pale streaks in the space alluded 
to between the subdorsal and subspiracular stripes, 
viz. three above the pale line, and two below it, on 
each segment. The subspiracular stripe is wider than 
in the other species (and the belly seems to have rather 
a pale golden-brown gloss). 

Gespitis has, in the space between the subdorsal and 
subspiracular stripes, three ragged and irregular, rather 
paler, longitudinal lines, a little meandering in character, 
and edged here and there with dark er, and being more 
or less obscure ; and the belly and legs in this species 
are decidedly tinted with green. (W. B., E.M.M. V, 
225, 2, 69.) * 


Charjias GRAMINTS. 

Plate LXIV, fig. 4. 

The description of this larva must be culled from 
the note under the preceding species, p. 69. 

Paohetra leucoph^a. 

Plate LXV, fig. 1. 

On the 3rd of June, 1882, I received from Mr. 
Benjamin Arthur Bower, of Langley, Eltham Road, 
Lee, twenty-nine eggs of this species on chip in groups 
of four or five, and some singly, others loose, laid by a 
moth taken by himself at Box Hill, at rest on a tree 
trunk on the 22nd of May. 

Their hatching seemed imminent on their arrival, 
as they had all changed colour ; when first laid Mr. 
Bower said the eggs were of a light drab, and changed 
in a few days to purplish-brown ; they were laid on 
the side and bottom of a chip box, in an irregular 
mass, in some parts four deep. The egg is round, 
convex above and flattened beneath, and is numerously 
and finely ribbed and reticulated. Some were of a light 
drab colour, others darker drab, and most were of a 
leaden grey, all of them showing a dark grey ring at 
the apex and a thicker dark grey ring round the base ; 
these on the darkest eggs approach to blackness, and 
all the ribs glisten with a pearly lustre. 

The eggs began to hatch at 8.30 in the evening of 
the day of their arrival, and continued during the 
night, only one being unhatched the next morning. 
The young larvse were confined with Dactylis glome- 
rata, Brachypodium sylvaticum, and Poa annua at once, 
and in the morning of the fourth all showed signs of 
being eaten (the last named the most) by small trans- 
parent patches appearing of eroded or denuded cuticle 


when held against the light, besides minute grains of 
frass ; they were very active and vigorous little larvae, 
suspending themselves with fine threads and eager for 

The head, when a few hours old, was brown, marked 
with black ; the body was drab at intervals, with smoky 
dark grey-brown on the anterior segments and some 
of the others, bearing black shining tubercles, each 
with a black hair. On the 8th of June, when barely 
five days old, they had grown decidedly, and their 
colouring was now green, like that of the Poa on which 
they had chiefly fed ; the head much marked with 
darkish brown on the lobes, and the brown plate on 
the second segment decidedly divided in the dorsal re- 
gion ; dots and hairs, as before, blackish. 

On the 14th, nineteen survivors (from accidents and 
deaths) moulted the first time ; by the 17th they were 
green, with darker green subdorsal lines, and a lateral 
line closely followed by a whitish spiracular stripe; head 
and plate dotted with black, smaller tubercular dots 
black ; by the 25th many had ceased skeletonising the 
leaves, and had eaten the entire thickness, while some 
had spared the midrib; by the 26th most had moulted the 
second time, and now the head was shining pale greenish, 
with four rather large black dots in front of the lobes ; 
the ground colour of the back between the subdorsal 
lines was of a rather deeper greyish-green than that on 
the sides, but on the sides was a darker green line close 
to the broad spiracular stripe of whitish-green; the thin 
dorsal line and the very thin subdorsal lines were of 
a similar whitish-green, but fainter ; the dark dots 
of the body very small ; segmental divisions whitish- 

At this time I put out on growing grass most of 
those which had survived, keeping only three in closer 
confinement for observation ; these on the 30th of 
June were quite of a slaty-greenish colour, the pale 
stripes and lines a little more conspicuous. 

July 5th, these had moulted the third time, and were 


six lines long, marked and coloured as before, and by 
the 10th were laying up for the next moult, and by 
the 14th these had moulted the fourth time. The dorsal 
line then became buff-yellow and quite distinct; on 
either side of it on each segment was a conspicuous 
black dot, and another black dot on the side of each 
segment. Black freckles now appeared just above the 
spiracular stripe, also a black streak on each lobe in 
the front of the head; the general colouring was 
brown or brownish-drab, and the ground finely 
freckled with dark brown atoms ; by the 26th some of 
them were growing lighter coloured. I observed on 
changing their pot of grass one was laid up for moult- 
ing ; on the 28th it had moulted the fifth time, and was 
then put back with the others ; on the 5th of August 
another had. laid up to moult, and soon after got suc- 
cessfully over the operation, and similarly three others 
rather later ; another was waiting to moult on the 1 5th, 
and the latest got over this fifth moult on the 24th. 
After this fifth moult the larva was at first quite pale 
ochreous, but in a few days gradually gained more 
colour and growth, though this last proceeded slowly 
enough, as at this time they were not quite an inch long. 
On the 17th September one moulted the sixth time, 
another a day or two later, and the whole number of 
eight larvse, one after another, had got over their sixth 
moult by the 30th. They were now prettier larvae, 
much of the colour of Turkey rhubarb, two or three 
in handsome coats of " feuille de mort " velvet ; they 
were torpid and sleepy, yet they continued to feed a 
little in the evenings. By the 14th October they had 
attained the length of one inch and three lines, and 
were rather thick in proportion, though their skin 
seemed loose, and felt soft without firmness. On the 
29th October I put them out in a pot of the growing 
grass to take their chance, fearing, however, they 
would all die, as one had already died on the 10th of 
that month, from the effects of a white frost, which 
led me to suppose they were too advanced to stand 


the winter, as they avoided entering the earth. Pre- 
vious to putting all out I tried three first, and within 
a few hours picked up one that had got out of the pot, 
afterwards another. On the 12th November one was 
picked up from the floor, dead and dried up. On the 
26th November three more were found dead and 
shrivelled amongst the grass. (W. B., Note Book 
IV, 122.) 


Plate LXV, fig. 3. 

A larva from the Rev. H. Williams, on May 10th, 
1872, about five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch 
in length, very thick in proportion, plump and taper- 
ing just at each end, and very shining ; it was dug up 
beneath Silene inflata and grass. In colour it was 
pinkish-grey ; rather sluggish in habit, feeding at the 
roots of grasses. It moulted the second week in June, 
and was then rather less pink and more of a fleshy- 
grey tint, otherwise the same as before. It grew very 
slowly, continuing to feed at the roots and just above 
the roots of tufts of Poa annua, which were supplied 
to it from time to time. 

By July 19th it had become full grown, when its 
figure was depicted and the following description taken : 
— Length one inch and three-eighths ; very plump, the 
divisions tolerably incised, tapering behind at the last 
three segments, and just a little at the first two. 

The pupa three-quarters of an inch long, of moderate 
bulk, very uniform in size, tapering but little till near 
the tip, which is furnished with two slightly divergent 
fine points curved downwards, of a light brown colour. 

The moth appeared on the 4th September. (W. B., 
Note Book I, 182.) 

On the 30th June, 1879, I received a larva of this 
species from Mr. J. Gardner. It appeared to be full 
grown, measuring about an inch and one-eighth in 


length, rather thick and stumpy in repose, cylindrical, 
yet tapering a little at the two hinder segments, and a 
little from the third segment to the head, which is of 
a full and rounded form, though the lobes are well de- 
fined by the skin between them in a point on the crown ; 
the legs are all well beneath the body, as often occurs 
with larvae of burrowing habits ; but it is totally unlike 
any other larva I as yet know ; it has no dots or spots 
whence the minute hairs proceed, though with a strong 
lens the hairs are seen to spring from the situations 
where such dots would be in most Noctua larvas. The 
anal plate is peculiar ; it is rounded off behind rather 
abruptly, and is rather concave onits surface — aremark- 
able character in contrast with the convex surfaces of 
the other segments, all of which on the back are trans- 
versely divided with deep wrinkles into prominent 
ridges, most pronounced on the twelfth and front por- 
tion of the thirteenth segment ; the rather concave anal 
plate divided by two deep semicircular wrinkles into 
three ridges ; on most of the segments each front half 
on the back is by comparison almost smooth, though, 
in fact, every part of the skin there, and particularly on 
the ridges, is, by the aid of a lens, seen to be scored with 
minute wrinkles; in short, its external anatomy is marked 
by very deep channels between the muscles on a very 
finely wrinkled skin, which glistens rather than shines. 
In colour the glossy head is light brownish-yellow, the 
plate behind it rather paler and shining, the body 
generally a deepish flesh- colour, often of a livid tint 
of faint greyish flesh-colour, the ridges of the back 
and sides invariably with more colour than in the 
deep hollow wrinkles, which are paler and purer flesh- 
colour, smooth without glistening, and at the seg- 
mental divisions also ; the colour on the back of the 
two hinder segments grows darker by degrees, espe- 
cially on the ridges, culminating in darkish brown on 
the front division of the anal plate. The mouth dark 
brown. The spiracles deep flesh-colour, strongly out- 
lined with black. 


The moth of the true testaceous colouring emerged 
on the 28th of August, one fore-wing shorter than the 
other. (W. B., Note Book III, 270.) 


Plate LXV, fig. 4. 

In September, 1864, I received a number of eggs 
from Mr. Terry, of St. Mary Church ; they were all 
loose, but probably, in a state of freedom, the moth 
would attach them to grass, &c. 

The eggs at first are pale straw-colour, soon turning 
pale purplish-brown, and again becoming dingy grey a 
long time before the larra appear. This is singular, for 
the last change of colour usually precedes the hatching 
of the larva but a few hours, or days at the outside. 

One half of my eggs I kept in a pill-box, the other 
half I dropped on a bit of wall-moss, Tortula ruralis, 
which was planted with some tufts of various common 
grasses in a flower-pot. Here they were exposed to 
every change of weather — snow, rain, or frost — all 
through the winter ; till on April 4th, which was a 
warm day, I put the flower-pot under a sunny wall, 
and thus prevailed on the larvae to come forth. The 
eggs in the pill-box shrivelled up, every one. 

The larva at first is a little dingy fellow, but after a 
moult or two puts on the gayest dress worn in all its 
existence, becoming of a clear full green, with white 
dorsal, subdorsal, and broader spiracular lines. As it 
grows bigger the green becomes tinged with olive, and 
at the last moult the colour of the back is of an olive- 
brown, shining with a metallic lustre (reminding one 
of bronzy morocco leather) ; and the lines, which are 
clearly defined, are of a dirty freckled white. The 
figure is stoutest in the middle, tapering towards either 
end ; the head horny, brown in colour ; the plates 
on segments 2 and 13 nearly black ; the belly of a pale 


When disturbed these larvae had a way of turning 
their heads sideways back to their tails, and after 
attaining some size hid themselves by day amongst the 
grass. About the end of June they began to go 
undergound, forming for themselves very neat and 
smooth oval chambers, at about half an inch below 
the surface, and inclined to it at various angles, some 
of them being nearly perpendicular to it, so that the 
pupae in them rested nearly upright. The pupa is 
reddish-brown, round and full in outline, the blunt 
anal spike having two very small fine points projecting 
from it. 

The first moth appeared on the 14th of August, and 
the rest soon after. It was not always easy to detect 
the newly bred moths, as they hid themselves at the 
roots of grass nearly as cleverly as the larvae had done, 
but one could always see the clean round holes they 
had bored through the earth in emerging from their 
cocoons. All sorts of common grasses were eaten by 
this brood, but a certain number of them showed a 
decided preference for the rough hard Aira cxspitosa. 
(J. H., 11, 10, 65 ; B.M.M. II, 211, 2, 66.) 

[See also under Heliophobus popularis, p. 69, com- 
parative descriptions of that larva, this larva, and the 
larva of Char seas graminis.—TI. T. S.] 

Mamestra abjecta. 
Plate LXV, fig. 5. 

That I am able to offer some account of the hitherto 
undescribed larva of this species is due to Mr. Samuel 
Stevens, whose kindness in imparting to me for the 
purpose all the knowledge he acquired of it when he 
discovered the larva some years ago, I have most 
thankfully to record. 

Although thus instructed, it was, however, in vain 
that I hunted for the larva in 1877, through the end 
of May, onward to 11th of June, the day on which I 


chanced to find under a stone, within a neat little 
cavity of another stone beneath, embedded in stiff soil, 
a fine pupa, which, on the 12th of July following, 
produced a remarkably handsome female specimen of 
abject a. 

Having so far proved this species to exist on the 
south coast, I felt encouraged to resume the search in 
1878 in the same locality, where, during the months 
of May and June, I found larvae of other species from 
time to time, yet not one to satisfy me until the 3rd 
of June, but on that day I felt hopeful of having found 
abjecta in a young larva adhering to the under side of 
a stone, where it had sheltered itself with a partial 
covering of green " frass " spun together with silk, 
having been also connected with the tuft of grass 
whereon the stone had lain. 

By assiduously following up this success on all avail- 
able opportunities, extending the area of research, and 
raising a large number of stones, much to the discom- 
fiture of colonies of ants, various beetles, spiders, 
crustaceans, and slugs, I was again rewarded by 
finding on the 20th of June a full-grown example of 
the larva under what proved to be a very lucky stone ; 
though on turning it over at first there seemed only a 
large black spider in view, which sprang forward in 
alarm to a small hole, and as it paused there a moment 
on the brink, a small spot of pale colour beneath its 
dark body arrested my attention, and this pale spot 
proved to be part of the back of the larva, which was 
soon safely extracted from its snug quarters between 
the matted grass. 

After figuring and describing the larva, it was 
placed in a pot furnished with some of its native soft, 
muddy soil, together with a small tuft of the grass 
and a stone, and it soon worked its way beneath. I 
subsequently found it had formed for itself a very 
slight loose cocoon of silk, with a few particles of soil 
adhering, not under the stone, but close under the 
grass at the side of the pot, and the moth, a fine, 


dark greenish-glossed female, emerged on July 

The young larva of the 3rd of June lived only a 
week, and was barely three-quarters of an inch long, 
of stoutish figure ; its head, plates, and small horny 
spots of shining red-brown colour, the real ground 
colour of the body being a rather shining flesh-colour, 
palest and coolest on the thoracic segments, though 
not much of this showed on the back and sides, just 
merely a little around each spot, and in the transverse 
wrinkles when they opened with the movement of 
crawling ; the intermediate parts clouded purplish- 
brown without gloss, the paler coloured skin more 
conspicuous between the head and the plate on the 
next segment. 

The full-grown larva measured one and five-eighths 
of an inch in length, and was stoutly proportioned, 
cylindrical, the segments plump, moderately well 
defined, and puckered on the sides with short wrinkles, 
the spiracular region forming a puffed ridge along the 
eleventh and twelfth. The ventral and anal prolegs 
short, thick, and well beneath the body as in the true 
Agrotides, more adapted for burrowing than for walk- 
ing, though in all other respects of structure besides 
its true affinity lay with Xylophasia, very apparent in 
the transverse horny ridges and spots on the thoracic 
segments, though all the spots were much smaller 
than with polyodon, yet they were similar in shape 
and arrangement ; the body was of a rather dirty pale 
flesh tint, having a faintly darker flesh-coloured dorsal 
vessel appearing through the skin ; the head, the an- 
terior and anal plates, and the anterior legs of glossy 
bright reddish-brown colour ; the horny spots also, but 
of a much paler tint, each bearing a fine hair ; the 
front margin of the anterior plate, pointed in the 
centre and curving away concavely, showed that 
whenever the head should be retracted the margin of 
the plate would accurately fit against the lobes on the 
crown of the head, and protect the soft flexible skin 


between them, for as in the younger larva, so in the 
full-grown one, this interval of skin presented a notice- 
able character : a flesh-coloured short dorsal division 
appeared on the hinder part of the plate. The spiracles 
black ; the ventral and anal prolegs fringed with dark 
brown hooks. 

The pupa ( ? ) measured a trifle more than seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, and a little over two- 
eighths in thickest diameter, the shape similar to 
that of polyoclon, the abdominal tip with a flattish 
prolongation terminating with two straight pointed 
spines ; the wing-covers, leg and antenna cases rather 
roughened, and on the back of the abdomen a narrow 
band of punctate roughness lay across the front of 
each flexible segment. The colour for some time was 
brick-red, but as it matured became purplish-brown, 
with the tip pitchy black, having generally little gloss. 

As to localities, I am disposed to believe with Mr. 
Stevens that wherever its food-plants, Poa maritima, 
distans, and Borreri, grow along sea- banks, the margins 
of tidal rivers, salterns, muddy creeks, and salt-water 
ditches, abjecta may there be found ; but be this as it 
may, I am now able to appreciate properly the hard 
work Mr. Stevens must have expended in his perse- 
vering researches, which were formerly so successful 
in the neighbourhood of Grravesend and at other 
similar places. (W. B., 30, 4, 79 ; E.M.M. XVI, 
19, 6, 79.) 

Mamestra furva. 

Plate LXYI, fig. 2. 

For the long-desired opportunity of studying the 
larva of this species I am greatly obliged to Mr. 
John Dunsmore, of Paisley, whose unwearied kindness 
throughout the winter of 1876^7 in repeatedly hunt- 
ing up specimens for me, in spite of adverse weather, 
has my warmest thanks ; and I must not omit my 


obligations to Mr. Andrew Wilson, of Edinburgh, 
who, in 1869, sent me eggs, though at that time, for 
want of experience, I failed to retain the larvae in health. 

The eggs were sent to me at the end of summer, 
and the larvae hatched in September. They were very 
active at once, and seemed anxious to hide under the 
earth, and presently established themselves at the base 
of a tuft of grass, and spun together a little earth, 
frass, and some of the grass-roots for protection, 
Mr. Dunsmore found the larva? (commencing in the 
first week in November, when they were but three- 
sixteenths of an inch long) amongst the roots of Poa 
trivialis and P. nemoralis, growing from under large 
stones which capped a turf wall in a hilly district. 
After I received them, finding it necessary to supply 
them from time to time with growing food, for they 
woke up occasionally from hibernation and ate away 
the heart of the grass shoots close to the root, I tried 
them with Poa annua, and, to my great convenience, 
they took to it quite contentedly. During the winter 
their growth was trifling, but as Mr. Dunsmore con- 
tinued to send me fresh examples at intervals of time, 
which were always smaller than those I had been keep- 
ing previously, I drew the conclusion that in the colder 
climate of their northern habitat their hibernation was 
more complete, and that there during winter they pro- 
bably did not quit the smooth, silk-lined, oval nests or 
chambers which they constructed — each for itself — by 
spinning together the grass roots. After the middle 
of May I saw these nests were made less carefully, 
being no more than dome-covered hollows, out of 
which they came every night and fed, generally, as 
before, close to the grass roots, but sometimes on the 
panicles of seeds, becoming full fed during the first 
half of June; they then turned to pupae, without making 
any cocoon whatever, but loose in the peaty soil under 
the grass, and between July 1st and 14th I bred six 
imagos, all males. 

The egg oifurva is small, dome-shaped, ribbed, and 


reticulated, of a dirty whitish at first, changing after- 
wards to light drab, and again to dark grey, a day or 
two before hatching. The newly hatched larva is dirty 
whitish, with dark brown head, plates, and minute 
dots ; the hairs in the dots visible only with a lens. 
In six weeks' or two months' time it is about three- 
sixteenths of an inch long, of a light pinkish-brown 
colour, the head, plates, and warts of the same colour, 
but more shining than the rest of the skin ; and by the 
end of December examples vary in length according 
to their growth from four- sixteenths to five-sixteenths 
of an inch, and again at the end of March from three- 
eighths to four-eighths. In April it advances still 
slowly, and moulting, becomes rather paler, and grows 
by the middle of May to five-eighths of an inch in 
length, and after further moulting, towards the end of 
the month, its colouring is still paler. It is now dirty 
whitish, or pale drab or flesh-colour, the head, plates, 
and spots continuing brownish-red or pinkish-brown 
as before. Henceforward its growth is more rapid, 
and after another moult it attains its full growth, from 
the beginning to the middle of June. 

The healthy full-grown larva measures one inch and 
a quarter in length, and is moderately stout in propor- 
tion, nearly uniform in size, except that the first and 
last segments are a little smaller; the head full and 
rounded, the lobes on the crown well defined, and the 
jaws large; the segments plump and distinct at the 
divisions, the only very noticeable wrinkles being on 
the third and fourth. The general colouring of the 
body is a light and rather shining pallid flesh-colour, 
almost a light drab on the thoracic segments, melting 
gradually thence into a warmer fleshy tint, excepting 
on the belly, which is pallid. Down the middle of the 
back can just be seen, deep beneath the surface of the 
skin, a faint appearance of a pinkish-brown dorsal 
vessel, gently pulsating. The head is of a dark brick- 
red colour, very glossy, and with a few fine hairs, the 
upper lip flesh-colour, the mouth dark brown ; the broad 

vol. iv. 6 


glossy plate across the second segment is rather brighter 
than the head, and is reddish-brown, its front margin 
slightly waved and boldly defined with very dark brown, 
the semicircular hind margin narrowly outlined with 
the same dark brown ; this plate is well relieved from 
the head by an interval of the pale skin between them 
(generally conspicuous) ; the glossy plate on the anal 
flap is also light reddish-brown, strongly outlined with 
very dark brown in front, and more narrowly behind ; 
the tubercular warty spots are rather small, smallest on 
the middle segments of the body, not very shining, 
and of reddish-brown colour, each bearing a hair ; their 
number and arrangement precisely similar to those of 
Xylophasia poly o don and lithoxylea /* the spiracles are 
small, oval, and black ; the anterior legs reddish-brown, 
the ventral prolegs fringed with dark brown hooks. 

The pupa is from six-eighths to seven-eighths of an 
inch in length, moderately stout, and of the usual 
Noctua figure ; close below the ends of the wing-covers 
the abdomen begins gradually to taper, and there the 
next two rings are more deeply cut than those towards 
the tip, which has a blunt prolongation furnished with 
a central pair of straight pointed spines, and farther 
apart outside them another pair, thinner, shorter, and 
curved a little outwards. The colour of the tip and 
spines is black, all the rest a deep and rich red-brown, 
the whole surface, with the exception of a narrow 
band of punctures across the front of the more pro- 
minent abdominal rings, very glossy. 

From the preceding account it will be seen at once 
that furva, in the appearance and habits of its larva, 
is much more of a Xylophasia than a Mamestra, a 
resemblance noticed before by Guenee (tome v, p. 198) ; 
but I am inclined to think that his description, as well 
as that of Freyer, quoted in Stainton's Manual, does 
not sufficiently give the points of distinction, which, 
in the midst of much general resemblance, satisfac- 
torily separate this larva from polyodon (of lateritia, 

* See ante, pp. 52 — 58. 


the other Xylophasia mentioned by Guenee, I know 
nothing) ; and I can suggest an explanation of this 
confusion from two circumstances which happened to 
myself whilst rearing the larvse, and either of which 
might have set me quite wrong had I not taken the 
precaution to rear each example separately. I had 
been prepared by Mr. Dunsmore to expect ichneu- 
moned larvae, presenting an abnormal appearance, and 
amongst my stock I found two, in which the head, 
plates, and spots were precisely similar in form and 
appearance to the same features in the healthy larvae, 
so that no doubt could exist of the species, notwith- 
standing the size they ultimately attained. One of 
them, after moulting on the 14th of April, became by 
the 20th nearly an inch and a half long, and very 
stout, its skin minutely wrinkled transversely, and of 
a dull pink colour. On May 2nd I took a second 
figure of it, for it had changed considerably both in 
colour and texture of skin, and had grown to be one 
inch and three-quarters in length, the skin now tense, 
smooth, and very glossy, of a dirty, somewhat flesh- 
colour. On the 10th it had invested the bottom of its 
domed nest under the grass with grains of earth, and 
lay hidden in a complete cocoon, though very soft and 
fragile. I opened the cocoon about the middle of 
July, and found within a large, circular, rather flat- 
tened mass of light fawn-coloured silk, and in the 
centre the dark red head-piece of the larva. This 1 
had scarcely placed on a table and covered with a glass, 
than there issued from it in quick succession a swarm 
of Microg aster alvearius, which, perhaps to the number 
of one hundred, I hastened to destroy with chloroform. 
The other variety was about an inch and a half in 
length, of a dark smoky-grey colour above and lurid 
reddish beneath ; it was more . than once by night 
observed to be at the tops of the grass nibbling at the 
seeds. It was figured on the 15th of June and died 
three days later, about thirty middle-sized ichneumon 
larvae having eaten their way out of its body. 


The other circumstance was this. In the first in- 
stalment of little larvae from Mr. Dunsmore was an 
individual which, in point of colouring, for some time 
presented no particular variation from its companions, 
but eventually became noticeable by its outstripping 
them in growth, when I began to pay it much atten- 
tion, and gradually became aware of well-defined 
differences developing themselves each time it moulted, 
until at length, as I had begun to expect, the special 
characteristics of poly o don appeared to convince me it 
was that species. It continued to grow, and by the 
month of April it had reached the length of two 
inches (longer, in fact, than those I described in 1875), 
with a body of proportionate stoutness, and looked 
quite a formidable creature ; and to leave no doubt at 
all in the matter I bred the moth on the 8th of June. 

Now, had I kept all these larvae together, I might, 
— selecting the biggest examples for the purpose — 
have taken my description from an ichneumoned 
specimen or from the polyodon larva, and should thus 
have missed the true characteristics of furva ; these 
are printed in italics in the foregoing account, and it 
is specially to be noted that the hend, plates, and warts 
are not black, but reddish-brown. (W. B., 26, 10, 77 ; 
EMM. XIV, 182, January, 78.) 

Apamea connexa. 

On the 17th of August, 1873, I received from Mr. 
J. R. Wellman seven eggs of this species laid on a 
piece of cork, in two groups, composed of three in 
each group and a single one, all adhering to the cork 
by a gummy substance. The egg is spherical, but a 
little flattened, very finely and delicately ribbed ; of a 
pale pinkish-drab colour, and lustrous as a pearl. On 
April 1st, 1874, the eggs began to turn darker, of a 


slate-colour, by the 4ch were almost black, and on the 
5th when put in the sun one of them hatched. 

The young larva had a black head and plate on the 
second segment ; the body dark purplish-brown, 
excepting the three or four hinder segments which 
were colourless, the segmental divisions paler. On tho 
7th the deep opaque purple- brown colour seemed dis- 
posed in transverse bands round the segments. It had 
been feeding on the cuticle of a piece of garden striped 
grass, but on hunting after it I had the misfortune to 
inflict on the larva an injury which proved fatal. None 
of the other grasses had been touched. 

On the 20th of August, 1874, I received sixteen 
eggs of this species from Mr. Wellman, all laid in a 
cluster like a bunch of grapes, of the same form, colour, 
and texture as above described, some of them perhaps 
a little deeper pink. On April 6th, 1875, these eggs 
began to turn a little darker, and by the 10th had 
become purplish-black in hue, when one larva was 
found early in the morning to have hatched. It 
answered exactly to the description above noted. I 
put it in a bottle with Holcus mollis, Molinia coerulea, 
Aira cdespitosa, Luzula sylvatica. Another larva hatched 
on the morning of the 11th, and one in the afternoon ; 
two more by the morning of the 12th; by this time I 
could observe a slight trace of the Holcus mollis having 
been nibbled, and that the pale hinder segments of two 
or three of the larvae had become dark like the other 
segments. Another larva hatched in the afternoon of 
the 12th, three on the 13th, two on the 14th, two on 
the 15th, one in the evening of the 16th — altogether 
fourteen larvae. 

On the 19th I sent three larvae to Mr. Hellins, on 
the 22nd I placed four larvae on the growing potted 
Holcus mollis ; on the 23rd I found the remaining three 
larvae on the cut grass in the bottle were dead. 

The duration of each life seemed to average ten days, 
about the period for a first moult. (W. B., Note 
Book II, 38.) 



Plate LXVII, fig. 2. 

On the 28th of March, 1868, my friend Mr.Doubleday 
kindly sent me a larva about an inch long, found at 
night in Epping Forest, which, unfortunately, soon 
after died from ichneumons, and the figure taken of 
it remained an enigma until 1872, when its identity 
was determined by the appearance of gemina from a 
similar larva, found by the Rev. H. Williams, of 
Croxton, while searching for larvae of its congener 
unanimis under grass sods in a loose and damp soil 
on December 12th, 1871 ; although so much smaller 
than the one above mentioned, being only three-eighths 
of an inch long at that date, yet I saw at once it was 
of the same species, possessing the same distinguishing 
characters which continued unchanged till its maturity. 

Though supplied with plenty of grasses from time 
to time it persistently kept itself coiled round and 
nestled amongst the soil at the roots, showing no dis- 
position to feed until the 27th of February, 1872, 
when it came out and moulted on the grass, and then 
began to feed on Phalaris arundinacea : having soon 
after increased in length to seven-eighths of an inch 
it again moulted, and by March 18th reached its full 
growth, when I found it would eat Poa annua or 
Triticum rep ens quite as well as the ribbon-grass, but 
it was not a great eater ; on the 24th it retired to 
earth, and the moth, a female, emerged on June 12th, 
a dark and handsome variety, the remissa of Haworth. 

This larva, when full grown, was one inch and five- 
eighths in length, cylindrical, of moderate and almost 
uniform stoutness, tapering but little at either end, 
the head rounded. In colour it was brownish-grey, 
finely striated longitudinally with a darker tint of the 
same; the dorsal line yellowish-white, uniform in 
width throughout, and bordered with dark grey; the 


subdorsal stripe brownish-ochreous, but little paler 
than the colour of the back ; the spiracular stripe, 
characteristic of the genus, and of this species in par- 
ticular, was broad, of a light drab colour with paler 
edges, and along its middle were situated the oval 
spiracles, which were yellowish-drab delicately outlined 
with black ; the belly and all the legs brownish-grey, 
similar to the colour of the back ; the shining head of 
the same colour, freckled with darker ; the black plate 
on the second segment highly polished, as is also that 
on the anal flap, on both the dorsal and subdorsal lines 
appeared almost white ; the tubercular warty dots 
blackish, each bearing a grey-brown hair. 

The pupa was little more than five-eighths of an 
inch in length, of the usual Noctua shape, rather stout 
in proportion to its length, ending in two minute 
points at the anal tip ; it was of a dark mahogany- 
brown colour, and very glossy, enclosed a very brittle 
earthen cocoon one inch long by five-eighths wide, 
lined with a slightly wrought tracery of silk threads. 
(W. B., 9, 3, 74; E.M.M., X, 275, May, 74.) 


Plate LXVII, fig. 3. 

On the 1st of March, 1868, I found on grass a larva 
unknown to me at the time, which I figured, and on 
the 3rd it spun up ; the moth appeared on the 5th of 
June following, and proved to be of this species. On 
my comparing my figure of this larva with that of 
unanimis by Hiibner, the difference between them was 
so great as to lead me to suppose mine could not be a 
typical representative of the species, and I resolved 
to wait till more larvae could be found, either to 
prove or disprove the correctness of my supposition 
before offering any description for publication. But 
I can now say, after having had examples of the larvae 
from Norfolk, Devonshire, and Hampshire, which 


differed in no way from the one above mentioned, that 
I have no doubt of this, which I am about to describe, 
being the typical form of the larva, at least in this 

Unfortunately I can say but little of the egg state, 
and nothing of the juvenile larva ; for though some 
years ago I imprisoned a female moth in a pot with 
growing Aira flexuosa covered with leno, the eggs she 
deposited were allowed to hatch and the young larvae 
to escape during my absence from home ; I had, how- 
ever, previously noted that the eggs were of a pale 
drab colour, and were all adhering to the blades or 
leaves of the fine grass about four or five inches from 
the soil. 

Besides Triticum repens and other grasses, the larva 
seems partial to a variety of Phalaris arundinacea, the 
striped ribbon-grass of gardens. On the approach of 
cold weather it seeks a hybernaculum often in the loose 
grassy sods at the foot of a tree, particularly affect- 
ing decayed willows, and occasionally under the bark, 
and sometimes within the tree itself, amongst the rotten 
dust. At the end of February or beginning of March 
it wakes up, but not to feed again, and after crawling 
about for a few nights, finds a suitable place for pu- 
pation. Some of the larvae I had in captivity spun 
amongst the roots of the grass, and others in loose, 
light soil, and the perfect insects came forth from the 
27th to the 30th of May, 1871. Before proceeding 
with my description I desire to offer my thanks to the 
Rev. Henry Williams and to Mr. H. D'Orville, for 
their valuable assistance in supplying larvse both in 
spring and autumn. 

In October the full-grown larva measures from one 
and one-eighth to one and a quarter inches in length 
when stretched out, but often contracts itself to one 
inch; it is cylindrical, of about uniform moderate 
stoutness, tapering very slightly just at each end, the 
head being a trifle the smallest of the segments, and 
the anal segment rounded at the tip. The smooth 


head, and the plate on the second segment are highly 
lustrous, and the skin on all the rest of the body is 
glossy, but, from being covered with multitudes of 
minute wrinkles, it has no very great play of light on 
its surface ; there are also three deeper subdividing 
transverse wrinkles across each segment. The whole 
colouring consists in lighter and darker tints of a red- 
dish-brown inclining to ochreous ; the ground colour 
of the back and side is not very deep in tint, and is 
much like that of some of the Leucanidse ; the dorsal 
stripe begins on the deeper brown plate of the second 
segment, where it is but a mere line ; on the third and 
fourth it grows wider, and thence is of about equal 
width to near the anal tip, being very much paler than 
the ground, indeed, almost whitish-ochreous ; it is very 
finely edged with darker brown, and on each segment 
passes through a narrow elliptic mark of darker brown 
than the ground colour, composed of freckles. The 
subdorsal stripe is of similar width, but is very little 
paler than the ground colour, though very well defined 
by its having darker edges ; below this, after an inter- 
val of the ground colour which terminates in a dark 
edging, comes the spiracuiar stripe broader than either 
of the others, of about the same depth of tint as the 
subdorsal stripe, and defined by a paler edging above 
and below; about the middle of this broad stripe is 
the row of brown spiracles, each delicately outlined 
with almost black, and surrounded with a small pale 
halo ; the belly and legs are of a slightly deeper tint 
than the spiracuiar stripe, and are faintly freckled with 
a still paler tint. The ventral prolegs are all tipped 
with deep brown, the anterior legs spotted with brown ; 
the usual two pairs of tubercular dots on the back of 
each segment are deep brown, as are also the pair on 
the side situated above and behind each spiracle, each 
dot being furnished with a fine brown hair ; the head 
is brown, and very dark brown round the mouth. In 
March, after hybernation, the larva is generally of 
darker hue, the whole colouring being of deeper brown, 


with scarcely any trace of ochreous in its composition, 
but this is the only change, as all its details remain 
relatively the same. 

The cocoon is made of pale grey glassy-looking silk, 
compact and smooth of texture, firmly adherent to the 
substances around it, broadly oval in form, and little 
more than half an inch in length ; the pupa is half an 
inch long, of moderate stoutness, smooth, dark red- 
dish-brown in colour, and very highly polished. (W. 
B., 11, 71 ; E.M.M. VIII, 207, February, 72.) 

On the 6th of August, 1882, I received from Lord 
Walsingham three young larvse feeding in the con- 
volute pointed shoots of leaves of Phalaris arundi- 
nacea ; they were about 10 mm. long, with black head 
and neck plate and a black anal plate ; the body bluish- 
green, with paler delicate cool grey lines, dorsal and 
subdorsal and broad spiracular stripe, and the belly 
nearly as pale ; the segmental folds of skin of a pale 
ochreous-greenish. One of these had prepared to moult, 
and had got over the operation before the 10th, and 
by the 15th it had grown to be 16 mm. long, of the 
true Noctuid form, and the head had become brown, 
and the neck less dark brown, with the dorsal and sub- 
dorsal lines running through it ; the ground colour of 
the body more of a drab-greenish than before ; the 
minute dusky dots were visible with the lens. There 
was at that time no doubt in my mind that this in- 
dividual was Ajpamea unanimis. 

On the 9th of August I received from Lord 
Walsingham seven more, all like the preceding. 

On the 20th the larvse, after moulting, were quite 
brown, with brown head and a darker browu streak 
on each lobe, the neck plate the same, both shining; 
the lines began on the front of this plate, the dorsal 
line thin along this plate and afterwards thicker, but 
the subdorsal began at its full thickness, and they 
were of paler brown than the brown of the ground 
colour ; the broad spiracular stripe and the belly were 


more whity-brown ; the length was now 13 mm., and 
of much stouter proportions. 

By the 3rd of September, after moulting, they 
measured from 20 to 22 mm., and were quite brown 
and sober in their colouring — the anal plate still the 
darkest, and were all full-grown unanimis. By the 
9th of October they ceased feeding, though the grass 
was supplied till end of the month. 

On the 12th of February, 1883, they were found to 
be all dead and shrivelled up amongst dried leaves of 
the Phalaris kept out of doors. 

The larvae on the striped grass from Blubberhouse, 
Yorkshire, arrived on the 8th of September, and were 
all rather less than half an inch in length, with black 
heads and plates and greyish-greenish bodies, marked 
with stripes quite similar to the usual unanimis. 
They fed well, and retained the black heads up to the 
penultimate moult, and also the anal plate quite black, 
and these did not change colour till after the last 
moult, when they became pale brown. Their growth 
was rapid, and they were full grown by the 18th of 
October, but fed on until the 23rd, though more 
sparingly. The full length was now 1 inch 1 line ; the 
head and the plates lightish brown and shining, the jaws 
dark brown, papillae pale cream-colour, as was also the 
dorsal stripe, the subdorsal not quite so pale, the 
ground between them and the spiracular stripe of a 
delicate brownish-greenish tint, and with fine grey- 
brown dots near and close to the edges ; the spiracular 
stripe broad and pale cream-colour, spiracles in the 
middle were whitish finely edged with blackish ; belly 
and legs rather deeper tinted with greyish-buff; the 
skin shining a little, but covered all over with fine 
wrinkles except on the plates ; the ventral and anal 
prolegs longisb, and well furnished with fine hooks, 
that cling well to the grass. On each side of the 
dorsal line towards the end of each segment a few 
dark grey-brown freckles were aggregated together, 
and a dark edge finely outlined the dorsal line. On the 


29th of October the lines had greatly faded, and the 
ground had become very much of a flesh-colour, and 
they had almost ceased to feed. I found two of them 
had snugly ensconced themselves in a leaf of the 
striped grass, within a tubular hybernaculum made by 
their curling round the upper surface and slightly 
spinning the opposite edges together. By the 31st 
March, 1881, only one was alive, and that was in a 
moribund condition ; the others were all dead, and 
turned of a brownish-black colour, and the last sur- 
vivor died on the 2nd of April. 

In the garden here at Lumley, during August, I 
found on the striped grass some larvae, at first quite 
small, and very much like the Yorkshire larvae from 
Lord Walsingham ; and gathering the grass as food for 
the latter, I frequently found I had gathered a larva 
with the grass. There must have been a large number 
of these larvae on the six large tufts of grass, which 
became greatly ravaged by October, when not a leaf 
of any freshness would be found entire on either of 
the tufts, which towards the end of the month were 
melancholy spectacles, every green shoot devoured, 
and only the dry, rapidly bleaching leaves left, with 
large portions of them much cut away, showing the 
previous ravages of the larvao. On the 18th of October 
I took a lantern soon after dark, and by its help found 
six larvae, one on each tuft. At that time there were 
a few green shoots remaining, but they had nearly all 
disappeared by the 29th. 

When I again looked at the Lumley larvae on the 
12th of February they were all dead but two, and those 
two had become smaller. (W. B., Note Book IV, 161.) 



On July 14th, 1878, I received from the Rev. John 
Hellins a cluster of about nine eggs of ophiogramma, 
which had been sent to him the day before by Mr. B. 
A. Bower, of Langley, Eltham Road, Lee. The shape 
of the egg is roundish, but rather flattened, much like 
a Gouda cheese, but having a depression beneath, the 
surface very finely ribbed and reticulated, in colour of 
very pale, watery drab tint, and very glistening. On 
the 21st they changed colour to a light drab, with a 
darker drab spot showing through a part of the shell. 
In the morning of the 23rd two eggs hatched, having 
become of a pinkish-grey just before ; the next day 
three more hatched. 

The newly hatched larva is of a pale drab colour, 
with pinkish-grey bands across most of the middle 
segments of the body ; the head, the plate on the 
second segment, and that on the anal segment brown. 
After trying them with several grasses I found on the 
29th of July that the larvse had eaten only of Phalaris 
arundinacea, attacking it lengthwise and eating little 
channels between the fibres, quite through the sub- 
stance of the leaf, the larva then being whitish, the 
head and plates as before. 

On August 9th the larva? had grown a little, but 
were still very slender and pale in colour, the head 
and plate on the second segment brown, the plate on 
segment 13 and two transverse dots on the front of 
that segment of the same colour ; the body limpid and 
watery-looking, tinged on the back with a faint brown- 
ish-greenish, and showing a subdorsal paler line on 
each side ; the belly almost colourless. 

August 15th I had the misfortune to kill one larva 
and to find that only two were left, both about to 
moult and much browner than before. On the 19th, 
whilst changing food, I had the misfortune to kill 
another while searching for it. 


The Phalaris I had potted continuing to wither, I 
potted some of the garden striped variety, and put on 
it the one remaining larva on the 23rd August, which 
soon ate its way into the main stem by the axil of a 
leaf. At this time the larva was a quarter of an inch 
long, very slender, and transparent greenish, with 
brown marbling on back and sides, forming a broad 
transverse band across each segment, through which 
ran the dorsal and subdorsal paler lines of greenish ; 
the head and plates brown as before. (W B., Note 
Book III, 243.) 

Apamea fibrosa. 
Plate LXVII, fig. 4. 

After fruitless researches at various times during a 
quarter of a century by many skilful collectors 
desirous to find the larva of this species — reputed to 
be abundant in fens and similar places — my hope of 
obtaining it had almost died out, but revived towards 
the end of last year with encouragement from Mr. W. 
H. B. Fletcher, when he made known to me that very 
strenuous efforts had been devoted to it, and would 
be continued until the mystery of its habitat was 
cleared up. 

The success that crowns perseverance has in this 
case been happily exemplified by Mr. Albert Houghton, 
of Wicken, who deserves great credit for his praise- 
worthy efforts in bringing this larva to light, after it 
had so completely baffled all who had before searched 
for it in this country. 

Without questioning the accuracy of Treitschke,* 

* Treitschke's authority for this statement is thus given (v, 2, 332) : — 
" According to the manuscript journal of a worthy entomologist, which 
contains several precious observations, the writer found at the begin- 
ning of June, in Iris pseudacorus, a larva which had quite eaten away 
the flower-stem. The larva was an inch and a half long, changed to a 
pupa within the plant, and produced the moth, above described, at the 
end of June." 


who assigned to fibrosa the flower-stems of Iris pseuda- 
corus, I yet may venture to say there seems to me but 
little doubt that this conclusion may probably have 
been drawn from an aberrant example, as latterly in 
England there had come to be a consensus of opinion 
that it could not be found in those stems. 

But, however that may have been, it is now certain 
that I had the great pleasure to receive this larva from 
Mr. Fletcher on the 1st of July, 1883, being one of 
several Mr. Houghton had a day or two before sent to 
him, and these were supplemented with further 
examples, and on the 21st Mr. Fletcher most kindly 
presented me with one of the pupae which had resulted 
from them. 

Of course I tended the larva most assiduously with 
fresh, but substitute, food, from the most likely aquatic 
plants I could find, including at first Sparganium, Iris, 
and Gar ex, giving it the lower part of each next the 
root ; but it persistently refused the first two named, 
and ate only of Carex paludosa, and very sparingly of 
that, as though not quite to its taste. Yet, seeing it 
eat, I was hopeful the first three or four days of rear- 
ing it, but was soon undeceived, as just within a week 
it died of atrophy, after vainly wandering about in 
quest of its proper food-plant, the great fen sedge, 
Cladium mariscus. 

Mr. Houghton was led to his discovery of the larva 
by observing that when the crop of this sedge had 
been cut and removed there were some of these plants 
that had not pushed out fresh shoots, and looked as 
though dead in the middle. These on being closely 
examined proved to be tenanted by the larvce, whose 
ravages had thus betrayed them to him, and from the 
experience subsequently gained he arrived at the con- 
clusion that each larva had ravaged about nine or ten 
shoots of Cladium before it was fed up. 

When the Cladium is mown, the situation of the 
larva is found to average a distance of about an inch 
and three-quarters below the cut surface, where the 


leaves are grown so compactly together as to form 
almost a solid substance, and there, a little above the 
root-stock on the outside, is a roundish hole, pierced 
horizontally or tortuously to the very heart or centre 
of the plant, whence this excavation is enlarged and 
extended either upwards or downwards, or a little in 
both directions, just as the larva chooses to feed ; and 
the hollow residence thus eaten out is thereby more or 
less irregular in form and direction, though generally 
an inch and a half in perpendicular length, and from 
a quarter to three-eighths in width, as from a sample 
comprising a good number of these excavations, most 
kindly sent by Mr. Fletcher for my inspection, I found 
all varying a little from each other, though in one 
important particular they were alike, — in the fact of 
their being just sufficiently low down to escape the 
scythe of the mower. 

On the 14th of August I bred the moth, a female. 
The length of the larva I figured was from thirteen to 
fourteen lines ; it was of moderate thickness and very 
cylindrical throughout, except that the head was a trifle 
smaller than the second segment, and the third and 
fourth rather the stoutest, the thirteenth with a very re- 
markable sloping plate on the anal Rap, flattened in the 
middle and having a prominent ridge round the margin, 
with large tubercular warts at the hinder edge ; the 
segmental divisions plainly defined, and also the sub- 
dividing wrinkles across the back of each beyond the 
fourth, viz. one not far from the beginning, another 
well behind the first pair of tubercular warts, and a 
third a little behind the second pair of the trapezoid. 
All the legs were very well developed. In colour the 
head was of a dark warm brown, darkest at the mouth 
and very glossy, a black glossy plate on the second seg- 
ment, the anal plate blackish-brown with black mar- 
ginal ridge and posterior warts ; the rest of the body 
above was of a very dark slaty-brown, rather inclining 
to a very deep olivaceous drab, especially on the 
thoracic segments ; the belly and legs a lighter drab, 


the faintly paler dorsal and subdorsal lines of drab 
just distinct enough to be seen ; the tubercular warts 
black-brown, each with a fine hair, and in relative 
sizes and situation arranged precisely the same as in 
Rydrdecia micacea ; the spiracles oval and black, the 
ventral and anal prolegs barred with black, the feet 
fringed with dark-brown hooks that clung to any sur- 
face they touched ; the skin, generally soft and smooth, 
glistened slightly at the wrinkles while the larva was 

The cocoon was about an inch long and half an inch 
wide, of elliptical figure, composed of earthy particles 
mixed with moss and other vegetable comminuted 
matter, the inside smoothly lined with brownish silk. 
The pupa was 9 lines in length, of stout and robust 
character, the eye-pieces rather prominent, and beneath 
them the head produced to an obtuse point ; the thorax 
thick, with a swollen rounded form, the wing-covers 
and all other parts clearly defined and smoothly wrapped 
close to the body ; the lower abdominal rings tapered 
gently to the tip, which ended with two fine points ; 
in colour the head, thorax, and wing-covers were of a 
very deep olive-green, the abdomen of a less deep and 
brownish olive-green, the divisions of the moveable 
rings darker, the surface shining ; the two anal points 
had become entangled in silk threads that held the 
old larval skin, and this skin still retained the very 
remarkable anal plate already described, in such per- 
fect condition as to afford the most satisfactory iden- 
tification. (W. B., 3, 12, 83; B.M.M. XX, 176, 
January, 84.) 

Apamba ooulea. 

Plate LXVII, fig. 5. 

On the 22nd of April, 1879, I received a larva in a 
grass culm from the Rev. E. T. Daubeny, and another 
from Mr. W. R. Jeffrey on 28th, and on supplying a stem 

VOL TV. 7 


of Dactylis glomerata to the first-named larva on May 
3rd I found I had unwittingly gathered a third larva. 
All were precisely alike and fed inside the stems on 
their linings, and on the tender embryo blossoms. 

The larva is tough to the touch, cylindrical, though 
rather stoutest at the thoracic segments, whence it 
tapers to the rather narrow, pointed and flattened 
head, and also gradually to the anal segment. At the 
date last given (May 3rd) the larvae measured from 
five-eighths to barely three-quarters of an inch, and the 
colour of the body was light greenish, there being a 
dorsal marking of this colour rather broad and of oval 
shape on each segment, thus forming a string of egg- 
shapes down the back, defined by a stripe of dingy 
pinkish or purplish-pink on each side. 

By the 9th of May the larvae had grown to be seven- 
eighths of an inch long, the green egg-shapes on the 
back were less distinct, being longer and more uniform 
in width, and a central pulsating vessel of dingy 
greenish showed faintly through the skin ; the dingy 
purplish-pink stripe on either side of the green dorsal 
line was rather ragged edged; the segments were 
plump in character, but each had several fine trans- 
verse wrinkles ; the head, partly retractile within the 
second segment, was light brown, with the mouth 
darker, the ocelli black ; the light brown plate on the 
second segment was divided dorsally by a paler line ; 
on the anal segment was a semicircular pale brown 
plate, very shining, like that on the second segment 
and the head ; the skin generally had scarcely any 
gloss, though glistening a little along the sides in 
places, below the pink stripes aud above the spiracles ; 
these last were dirty whitish, finely outlined with 
black, situated on the trachea, which showed through 
faintly as a pale thread. (W. B., Note Book III, 



Plate LXVIII, fig. 2. 

For many years this larva eluded all my attempts 
to find it, until I was befriended by the chance visit of 
a female moth to a small pot of Aira cxspitosa, which 
for two years or more had been standing in an upper 
window, generally open in fine weather. On this 
grass, some time in 1874, she was obliging enough to 
deposit an egg, and in no other way could my good 
luck have occurred, as the pot of grass had not been 
used for anything during the year, but was kept in 
reserve against the possibility of being wanted at any 

Whilst watering the grass on the 23rd of April, 
1875, 1 was surprised to see some of the blades much 
eaten, apparently by a Lepidopterous larva. This set 
me searching, and at length I detected the larva cun- 
ningly hidden in the dry sheath of a stem, which was 
drawn round it with a few threads just at the axil of 
a green blade, the greater part of the grass being dry. 
I saw at once this larva was that of a Miana, but one 
I had not before seen, and as it seemed nearly full-fed, 
I figured it next day, and tended it carefully. 

It continued to feed very well til) the 1st of May, 
and on the 2nd, when about to supply earth to its 
cage, I found it had already spun itself up in a light 
silken cocoon, under three pieces of the grass, and 
attached firmly to the bottom of the cage. The moth, 
a male, emerged on June 2nd. 

The length of the larva was nearly seven -eighths of 
an inch ; it was slender and cylindrical, though tapering 
from the third segment to the head, which was small 
and rather flattened, tapering also a little from the 
eleventh to the end of the thirteenth segment The 
skin was of tough consistence, finely and conspicuously 
wrinkled transversely, and rather glistening ; the 
shining head of a light brown colour, darker brown at 


the mouth ; a light brown shining plate on the second 
segment and another on the anal flap, all the rest of 
the body having a ground colour of a pale and subdued 
flesh tint, rather inclining to greyish-ochreous ; the 
dorsal stripe, of a darker tint of this colour, was well 
deQned by a stripe of the pale ground on either side; 
next a very broad stripe of pinkish-brown, followed by 
a narrow stripe of the pale ground, finely edged below 
with pinkish-brown; another narrow stripe of the pale 
ground follows, and then a stripe composed of faint 
freckles of pale pinkish-brown, beneath which came 
the black spiracles. On the sides of the second, third, 
and fourth segments were rather large, brown, shining 
spots ; the anterior legs were pinkish-brown, the pro- 
legs tipped with light brown ; a fine soft hair pro- 
ceeded from each of the brownish tubercular dots, 
which could only be seen with the aid of a strong lens. 
The pupa-skin was a little over three-eighths of an 
inch in length, stout in proportion, the head and 
thorax rounded, and of about uniform bulk to a little 
below the wing-covers, the abdomen tapering thence 
to the tip, which was furnished with two diverging 
curved points and surrounded with a few minute 
bristles ; the colour mahogany-brown and glossy. 
(W. B., 7, 76 ; E.M.M. XIII, 62, August, 76.) 


Plate LXVIII, fig. 3. 

Eggs of this species arrived the 29th August, 1871, 
from Mr. George Norman, of Forres. The eggs were 
laid in little clusters and singly, and were not very 
small in reference to the size of the moth. 

In shape the egg is spherical, a little flattened 
beneath, ribbed and reticulated ; in colour a pale 
straw tint, changing by September 9th to a dirty 
flesh-colour, then to a drab and greyish just before 


The first egg hatched September 9th. The young 
larva was rather slender in proportion, its colour pale 
brownish flesh-colour, and very highly polished ; the 
head dark blackish-brown, a paler dark brown plate 
on the second segment, and another on the anal flap. 
(W. B., Note Book I, 133.) 

On the 1st of June, 1880, five larvse from Mr. J. 
Gardner, of Hartlepool, came ; they were in the stems 
of Dactylis glomerata and some other grass. The 
sign of the presence of a larva in a stem is that the 
stem turns white and shows conspicuously amongst 
the sound green stems. The full-grown larva is from 
three-quarters to seven-eighths of an inch in length, 
stoutest at the fourth segment, tapering thence to the 
head, and also very gradually to the anal segment. 

On the 7th of June, 1880, I received from the Rev. 
Charles R. Digby, of Studland Rectory, parts of an 
immature flowering stem with flower end of Iris 
foetidissima, in which a larva, seven-eighths of an inch 
long, of literosa was feeding, a second larva having 
escaped from the holes made in the box. 

The ground colour of this individual was light 
ochreous-yellow, with scarcely any tinge of greenish ; 
the space between the dorsal and subdorsal lines was 
brighter pink than usual, forming two broad stripes 
of that colour. When the larva was walking the 
wrinkles on the back would open and show off the 
ground colour, but on contraction they would shrink 
together, and thus form a darker pink on the pink 
parts. The plate on the second segment was light 
brown, edged in front with darker brown. 

This larva spun up within the shrivelling remains 
of the flower bud it had eaten out, in a thin silken 
cocoon, and the moth emerged on the 24th of July. 

The pupa, half an inch long, was decidedly stout 
in proportion, the thorax and wing-covers well deve- 
loped, tapering a little towards the anal tip, which was 
furnished with two slightly diverging points, and sur- 
rounded with four very minute curly -topped bristles ; 


the colour a dark chestnut-brown, the surface smooth 
and shining. (W. B., Note Book IV, 15.) 


Plate LXVIII, fig. 4. 

In April last I had the pleasure to receive several 
larvae of this species, for which I am greatly indebted 
to the most kind exertions of Dr. Knaggs, who has 
thus brought another unknown larva to light. 

These larvae were found feeding in stems of Festuca 
arimdinacea, the interiors of which they entirely de- 
voured, leaving only the outer cuticle, in which, towards 
the end of June, they spun a very slight envelope of 
silk, and changed to the pupa state, the moths appear- 
ing from July 9th to 19th. 

This larva, when two-thirds grown, is about 
three-quarters of an inch in length, very smooth and 
shining, cylindrical, and plump, but tapering a little 
at both extremities, and the head very small and 
slightly flattened. The ground colour is a yellowish 
flesh tint, and it is marked on each segment with three 
transverse bands (the widest in front) of dull mottled 
reddish or dingy pinkish, very distinct on the back, 
but paler on the sides, and through them run the 
dorsal and subdorsal stripes of the clear ground 
colour. The spiracles are minute and black; the 
head dark reddish- brown ; a small pale reddish-brown 
plate on the second, and another on the anal segment. 
The anterior legs dark brown, and the prolegs tipped 
with dark brown. 

As the larvae became full grown their markings 
faded away until they appeared uniformly of a yel- 
lowish-white, with a dark grey pulsating vessel, show- 
ing through some of the anterior segments. (W. B., 
E.M.M. IV., 137, November, 67.) 



Plate LXVIII, fig. 5. 

With much gratification I am able to record the 
interesting discovery of the larva of M . expolita, and 
of its food-plant ; a puzzle that had hitherto baffled all 
attempts at solution has at length been unravelled by 
the assiduous efforts of Mr. J. Gardner, of Hartlepool, 
to whose kindness I have been indebted for the oppor- 
tunities of studying the larva, both in the past and 
present seasons. 

An attempt to rear this species from the egg was 
undertaken by the Rev. J. Hellins in 1873, when I 
received eggs from Mr. J. E. Robson, of Hartlepool, 
and in this way a record was made of the earlier stages, 
although but a single larva reached full growth, and 
that disappeared before the change to a pupa could 
take place. 

The eggs laid on July 22nd arrived on the 24th, 
1873 ; the larvae were hatched on August 3rd, and 
were put into a bottle at first with various grasses, 
out of which they seemed to choose the garden ribbon- 
grass, Phalaris arundinacea, var. ; so, in the course 
of the autumn, they were placed on growing plants of 
this grass in a flower-pot and put out of doors ; about 
the middle of October one was extracted from its 
mine in the stem of this grass, and figured by me ; 
after hibernation it was again extracted at the end of 
April, 1874, and again figured and sent back to its food ; 
but after this it disappeared, and so nothing could be 
published about it. 

Mr. Gardner kindly sent me a full-grown larva and 
its food-plant (Car ex glauca) last year, when I first 
bred this moth ; and this year six larvae, more or less 
mature, on the 31st of May, and the moths appeared 
July 13th to 19th. The plants of Car ex were from 
six to eight inches in height, and the habit of the 
larva is to eat out the very hea t of the plant, working 


its way down to the white portion close to the root 
and, as Mr. Gardner observed, when one plant has 
yielded its nourishment the larva migrates to another ; 
and of this habit he had good evidence in some plants 
he found ravaged and deserted by their former 

The egg was noted as being of globular shape, with 
soft glistening shell, scarcely showing traces of a sort 
of pitting all over ; in colour a very pale straw- 

The newly hatched larva was of the regular Miana 
form, stoutest at third segment, whitish in colour, 
shining, with the head black, a dark plate on second 
segment, the usual dots very small and distinct, but 
dark in colour. 

In captivity about the last week in October, before 
hibernation, the larva was nearly or quite five-six- 
teenths of an inch long, of the true Miana figure, 
stoutest at the third and fourth segments, tapering a 
little behind ; the head, smaller than the second, is flat- 
tened and wedge-shaped towards the front, and of 
reddish-brown colour, darker brown at the mouth ; a 
broad shining semi-transparent plate on the second 
segment of the same colour as the back, which is 
lightish orange-brown, having a dorsal line of pale 
orange-ochreous, with two short transverse bars about 
the middle of each segment ; the subdorsal marking 
of the same pale colour is broadish and bounded below 
by the light orange-brown of the side, from which an 
upward curved streak intersects the marking at the 
first subdividing wrinkle, and two shorter curves 
follow without much intersection ; the black spiracle 
at the lower edge is followed by the pale orange- 
ochreous of the belly ; a pale shining plate is on the 
anal segment. 

After hibernation, at the end of April, the larva is 
nearly half an inch long, rather slender but still 
thickest at the thoracic segments ; the design and 
colouring of the back and sides are much the same as 


before, but less well denned, as the brown of the back 
and sides is paler, and the belly has a faint watery 
greenish-yellow tint; the anterior legs are reddish- 

When found at large in the Garex, full grown, the 
larva is from half an inch to nearly five-eighths in 
length, of the same general figure as above, the seg- 
mental folds well defined, the subdividing wrinkles are 
deep on the third and fourth but moderate on other 
segments, which are dimpled along the sides ; the 
general ground colour of the body is dull ochreous 
with a tinge of reddish ; the back is deeply tinged with 
dull purplish-red on the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, 
seventh, and eighth segments ; the dorsal line so in- 
conspicuous as only just to be discerned as pulsating; 
the segmental folds are pale ochreous ; the head is 
reddish-brown and shining, with dark brown mouth 
and black ocelli; a yellow-brown shining plate on the 
second segment has its front margin rather darker 
brown, the anterior legs of the same colour; on the 
sides of the third and fourth segments is a triangular 
group of three large brownish-yellow horny spots ; the 
ordinary tubercular dots on other parts of the body 
are very minute, each with a fine short bristly hair, 
and a faintly paler ring round its base ; the spiracles 
black, the narrow plate of yellowish-brown on the fore- 
part of the anal segment has its front margin rather 
bluntly pointed in the centre, that of the anal flap is 
of the same shining colour, flattened, but with a little 
raised ridge round behind, from which proceed a few 
short bristly hairs, the ventral and anal prolegs tipped 
with brown hooks ; the skin of the body is smooth, but 
without gloss. 

The pupa is subterranean, but often lies only a short 
distance beneath the surface, and sometimes is scar eel v 
buried amongst vegetable remains slightly held to- 
gether by a few threads of silk ; it is five-sixteenths of 
an inch in length, and of the usual Noctua form, stout 
across the thorax, the abdomen tapering and ending 


with two fine points ; its colour for a time is very pale 
brown, afterwards dark brown, its surface shining. 
(W. B., 11, 8, 81, E.M.M. XVIII, 76, September, 1881.) 


Plate LXVIII, fig. 6. 

Thanks to the persistent efforts of Mr. James Batty, 
of Sheffield, I am able to offer a description of the 
larva of this species, as I believe for the first time. 

On the 23rd of May, 1870, Mr. Batty found several 
larvae and subsequently more, and also some pupae, by 
searching the crown of the roots of Aira csespitosa ; 
and he kindly sent me on the 24th three of the 
larvae, which were then apparently full grown. To 
the two most advanced I gave some cut lengths of the 
lower part of the grass stems placed on a bedding of 
portions of the roots carefully picked to pieces, so as 
to ensure the absence of any other creature. The 
third larva, after being figured and described, was 
placed in a pot with a small growing plant of the grass, 
which had also been carefully examined; it soon 
crept into the middle of the small plant, and I did not 
see it again, for I was unwilling to interfere with it. 

The other two I looked at each time of feeding, up 
to the 2nd of June, when I found that one of them 
had partly spun together two pieces of the dried 
grass sheath ; after that, being satisfied with this 
hopeful event, I did not disturb them further. 

The first moth, a male, appeared in the cylinder that 
confined the growing plant on June 30th ; only one 
of the other two emerged, on July 2nd, a female ; and 
about the same time Mr. Batty reported his having 
bred a series of both sexes. 

The full-grown larva varies from five-eighths to 
three-quarters of an inch in length, is moderately 
slender, the last three segments tapering a little to- 
wards the hinder extremity, the back just a very little 


arched in front ; the head smaller than the second 
segment, and flattened above towards the month ; with 
these exceptions the figure is tolerably cylindrical, and 
its texture of considerable toughness. The ground is 
either a delicate cream or pale flesh -colour, with three 
transverse bars of pale brownish or deeper flesh- colour 
on the back of each segment ; these bars are all inter- 
rupted down the middle of the back by a distinct 
dorsal stripe of flesh -colour still paler than the ground ; 
the subdorsal stripe is less pale aud less distinct ; the 
spiracles are black, and the region round them rather 
puffed ; the ventral surface and prolegs of the pale 
ground colour ; the head is glossy brown, darkest round 
the mouth ; a paler brown equally glossy plate is on the 
second segment, divided by a slender line of flesh-colour; 
and a still paler brown shining plate is on the anal tip ; 
the anterior legs are of the same pale brown colour. 

I must not omit to mention that the Rev. I 1 !. Hallett 
Todd most kindly sent me two larvae identical with 
the above, which he found in the roots of Air a csespitosa 
in May, 1867 ; but they died in the pupa state, and 
remained as an enigma unsolved till this season. 
(W. B., 7, 11, 70, E.M.M VII, 260, April, 1871.) 


Plate LXVIII, fig. 7. 

Beyond the very brief note by the late Mr. R. S. 
Edleston, of Manchester, in the " Zoologist," xv, 5405, 
I am not aware of any published account of the larva 
of this species ; and having had a great desire to 
become acquainted with it ever since I read that note, and 
having corresponded with Mr. Edleston on the subject, 
I at last found a friend who could help me to my object 
in Mr. James Batty, of Sheffield From him I received 
on the 21st of last July four larvae, which he had taken 
from Eriophorum vaginatum. They were found feed- 
ing a little above the root- stocks growing in a damp 


soil on wild moorland ; and Mr. Batty kindly sent a 
large tuft of the growing grass, which sufficed for 
bringing the larvae to full growth. 

Of the four larva?, one was evidently diseased, as it 
died on the evening after its arrival, but the remaining 
three were lively and fed well ; and as one of them 
seemed to be full-fed by the 25th of the month, I then 
kept it apart from the rest, and saw it was beginning to 
spin up on the same evening : on the 31st I made an 
examination, and was glad to observe it in the pupa 
state, reposing in a perpendicular position within a 
slight cocoon composed of a few silken threads of 
rather open work, holding around it some gnawings of 
grass and a little " frass," and situated amid the 
sheaths of the grass shoots. The perfect insect, a 
male, came forth on the 1 5th of August ; but unfortu- 
nately the tuft of grass grew mouldy, and thus the 
other two never reached the imago state. 

The full-grown larva was three-quarters of an inch 
in length, and of moderate stoutness, cylindrical in 
character, except that the thickest segments were the 
third and fourth, the body tapering from them to the 
head, which was the smallest, and again behind most 
gradually and slightly to the rounded anal tip, the 
plate on which was flattened, and rather depressed 
in the middle, having a slight marginal ridge behind. 

The colour of the head, of the plate next to it, as 
well as of that on the hinder segment, was pale reddish- 
brown, and highly polished, while the plate on the 
second segment was margined in front with dark brown; 
the mouth and ocelli dark brown ; the body of a 
middle tint of purplish-brown above, and paler below 
the spiracles, including the belly and legs ; the skin, 
though smooth, quite without gloss ; a faint dorsal 
paler line was visible chiefly at the end of each seg- 
ment ; the subdorsal stripe a little more distinct and 
paler ; the round tubercular warty spots were all very 
dark brown and shining, each being furnished with an 
excessively fine short brown hair ; the usual trapezoidal 


series on the back, gradually decreasing in size from 
the fourth to the eleventh segment, were more con- 
spicuous on the thoracic segments, for there they 
were transversely oval in form, as they also were on 
the twelfth, and on the front subdivision of the thir- 
teenth segment, and considerably enlarged on these 
last; most of the spots along the sides were round, a 
small one a little above and a large one a little behind 
each black spiracle, while lower down towards the 
belly were two more in a line with each other parallel 
to the line of spiracles ; those on the sides of the 
third and fourth segments were larger, and somewhat 
of a drop shape, the largest being behind ; below them 
were three others, smaller, forming a triangle on each 
of these segments ; the side spots were also enlarged 
on the twelfth and thirteenth segments ; the hind ridge 
of the anal plate and the tips of the ventral prolegs 
were dark ochreous-brown. 

The above description exactly suited to the three 
healthy larvse, and also the sickly one as far as details 
went, but the colour of the skin of that larva was pale 

The pupa was half an inch in length, moderately 
thick in proportion, widest across the thorax, and 
thence diminishing a little towards the blunt and 
rounded anal extremity, which was furnished with two 
sharp bristle-like spikes meeting near their points ; the 
wing-cases were well defined, but not very projecting ; 
its colour at first was a light reddish-brown, which 
changed gradually afterwards to darker brown, the 
abdominal divisions a little paler than the rest and 
with little gloss, the other parts being highly polished. 
(W. B., 10, 72, E.M.M. IX, ]95, January, 1873.) 


Grammesia TRILINEA. 
Plate LXIX, fig. 1. 

In June, 1864, I obtained eggs of this species from 
moths taken at flowers of yellow-rattle, the larvas from 
which appeared during the same month. A few of 
these I put on a broad-leaved plantain in a flower-pot, 
and soon saw signs of their taking to their food. After 
a time, however, I missed them, and at first concluded 
that they had been eaten by some spider, slug, centi- 
pede, ant, or other wild beast ; still I kept the gauze 
covering on the flower-pot, and finding that the plan- 
tain was continually kept level with the earth, I at 
last turned out earth and all, and thus detected the 
missing larvas, much grown in size, and very muddy in 
appearance from having burrowed an inch or more 
under the surface : they seemed to eat the stem of the 
plantain as well as the leaves, and continued their 
subterranean habits until the last, seldom — and then 
only at night — showing themselves above ground, and 
changing to pupse about the end of April. 

The description of the larva in the ' Manual,' from 
Freyer, is good as far as it goes, but is rather too much 
curtailed, so I venture to add a few particulars noted 
by Mr. Buckler and myself, premising that the first 
step in describing trilinea must be to give the larvas a 
good washing. In form the larva is short and thick, 
very wrinkled, the head small and retractile, also the 
thirteenth segment very small, the segmental folds 
deeply cut. 

Ground colour variable — sometimes dark grey; then 
the dorsal line is pale grey, edged with black at the 
segmental folds. The subdorsal line is a series of pale 
grey wedges on the several segments, the thin end of 
each wedge pointing forwards, and its upper side 
bordered by a short oblique black stripe, and its bigger 
end enclosing a black dot ; below again comes a rather 
broad dark brown stripe, and below that a narrow one 


of grey ; spiracles black, eacli placed on a little swell- 
ing ; belly pale grey. Sometimes the ground colour 
is a dirty reddish-brown, with the dorsal line partak- 
ing of the same tint, but paler, edged with black as 
before, most distinctly at the folds ; the subdorsal 
row of stripes of the same colour as the dorsal line, 
but of uniform width, and showing distinctly only on 
the anterior part of each segment, where also appear 
a pair of black dots; the spiracular brown stripe 
tinged with ochreous. There is another variety of a 
dirty flesh-colour, with the markings but faintly visible. 
(J. H., 6, 2, 66 9 E.M.M. II, 278, May, 66.) 

Caradrina Morpheus. 
PI. LXIX, fig. 2. 

While searching for larvae in an orchard, in the 
evening of September 12th, 1864, I found a small 
larva, then unknown to me, feeding on the lower leaf 
of a dwarf bramble close to the ground. As it ap- 
peared mature while it was before me to be figured, 
the next day I was induced to provide it with earth 
as well as with food, and before long, after feeding a 
little, it spun itself up in an earthen cocoon, placed 
just beneath the surface of the soil, and attached to a 
leaf and part of the stem of the bramble ; from this a 
fine female specimen of Morpheus emerged on the 7th 
of June, 1865. 

Since this my first introduction to the species, 
having been desirous of a further acquaintance with 
the larva for the purpose of testing the correctness of 
its assigned habit of hibernating and feeding again in 
the spring, I feel greatly indebted to Mr. W. H. Har- 
wood for sending me five larvae on September 29th, 
1871. These he had found with several more, chiefly 
on Sedum telephium, but a few on sallow, and one on 
Galium mollugo. 

These larvae fed very well on the Sedum as long as 


it could be kept in good condition, but the plant soon 
died off, and then, amongst a variety of other food 
supplied, sallow obtained the preference. Their pro- 
gress was slow, and they delayed spinning until the 
15th of October, when the first formed its cocoon in a 
sallow leaf ; on the 18th two spun up in dock leaves ; 
and on the 22nd one in sallow leaf ; and the last on 
the 2nd of November, also in a sallow leaf. 

No earth was allowed them, in order that I might 
be better able to observe their behaviour and inspect 
their cocoons from time to time. These at first were 
sufficiently clear when held between the light and the 
eye to show the form of the larva within, but in a few 
days their opacity increased and baffled observation. 
However, towards the advent of spring I made myself 
certain of their containing their inmates, and on the 
11th of June, 1872, a female moth appeared. After 
waiting a few days I opened the four remaining 
cocoons, and found a pupa in one, and in each of the 
others a shrivelled dead larva, and was thus confirmed 
in my belief that they had all fed up in the autumn. 

The full-grown larva, when stretched out, is from 
one inch to one inch and one eighth in length, of uni- 
form and very moderate stoutness, the head the smallest 
segment, and the thirteenth a little tapered ; it is 
noticeable that the tubercular small warty dots bear 
each an exceedingly fine and pointed hair, hardly to be 
seen, in this respect very unlike the blunt bristles of 
some of its congeners. In colour it is either a warm 
brown or a greyish-brown, the sides being the part 
rather deepest in tint ; the spiracular region, belly, and 
legs of a paler tint of brown ; the head rather shining 
brown, freckled with darker, and having a dark brown 
streak down each lobe ; the second, third, and fourth 
segments show but little markings, if any, of the dorsal 
paler line, whilst on all the others it appears only in an 
interrupted manner through a series of diamond shapes 
of darker brown freckles, two joined end to end on 
each segment, the anterior one very small, the other 


extending back to the fold ; the fine subdorsal line is 
paler, bordered by a darker brown line, and this on the 
fifth to twelfth segments inclusive bears on the ante- 
rior half of each a conspicuous blackish mark, much 
resembling an arrow point barbed behind, the upper 
barb sometimes prolonged faintly in brown atoms 
towards the hinder part of the chief dorsal diamond ; 
the sides bear some faint zigzag rows of dark brown 
freckles ; the spiracles are of the ground colour faintly 
outlined with blackish, not very noticeable ; the belly 
is less freckled with brown, and has some few spots 
paler than the ground. 

The pupa is not quite half an inch in length, mode- 
rately stout, the wing-cases rather long, and the tip 
of the abdomen terminated with two minute bristles 
curved at their extremities. The colour is dark reddish- 
brown and very shining. The cocoon is rather tough. 
(W. B., 10, 3, 74; E.M.M. X, 254, April, 74.) 




The following list of parasites, bred from the larvae 
or pupae of the species included in the present volume, 
has been kindly prepared by Mr. G. 0. Bignell, F.E.S. 
— H. T. S. 

Cymatophora or . , 

„ ocularis 

,, ridens 

Bryophila perla. . . . 


„ glandifera 
Diphthera Orion ... 
Acronycta psi 

„ leporina 

„ alni... 


„ rumicis . . . 
„ menyanthidis 


Simyra venosa 

Leucania lithargyria 

littoralis . 

Nonagria gemini- 



Ichneumon fabricator, Fabriciu s ") 
Hemiteles fulvipes, Gravenhorst > 
Apanteles glomeratus, Linne ... ) 
Hemiteles oxyphimus, Gravenhorst 

Campoplex pugillator, Linne 

Anomalon Jlaveolatum, Graven 

Ichneumon bilineatus, Gmelin 

Pimpla instigator, Fabricius 

Limneria unicincta, Gravenhorst 

Exorista lota, Meigen \ 

Ophion luteum, Linne \ 

Phorocera concinnata, Meigen 

Limneria unicincta, Gravenhorst . 

Paniscus testaceus, Gravenhorst < 
Exorista hortulana, Meigen < 

By whom bred. 

Exorista affinis, Fallen < 

Microgaster rugulosus, Nees 

Anomalon perspicillator, Graven- 
Ichneumon fuscipes, Gmelin . . . \ 
Cryptus moschator, Fabricius . . . ) 

Cryptus tricolor, Gravenhorst 


Exorista vulgaris, Fallen . . 

Ophion luteum, Linne 

Limneria crassicornis, Graven- 

Apanteles ruficrus, Haliday < 

Apanteles spurius, Wesmael ... < 

Chasmodes motatorius, Fabricius , 

Ichneumon lineator, Fabricius 

.Ichneumon qusesitorius, Linne 

Paniscus testaceus, Gravenhorst . . . 
Ichneumon qusesitorius, Linne 


T. A. Marshall. 
G. C. Bignell. 
T. R. Billups. 


F. D. Wheeler. 
J. E. Fletcher. 
J. E. Fletcher. 


T. A. Chapman. 

A. A. Lascelles. 


G. T. Porritt. 
E. A. Fitch. 

J. Curtis. 




H. D'Orville. 

T. Eedle. 

W. H. Harwood. 


E. A. Butler. 

E. Parfitt. 


G. F. Mathew. 


W. M'Bae. 

W. P. Weston. 







Nonagria typhse 


„ sparganii. 
Gortyna fiavago 



Hydrsecia nictitans 

„ petasitis . 

Axylia putris 

Xylophasia rurea . . . 

„ polyodon 
Luperina testacea . . . 

„ cespitis ... 
Mamestra brassicse . 

„ persicarise 

Apamea gemina . . . 

„ unanimis . 

Miana fitruncula ... 

„ arcuosa 

Caradrina Morpheus 

Ichneumon saturatorius, Linne. . . < 

Exophanes occupator, Gravenhorst 
Exophanes occupator, Gravenhorst 
Ichneumon lineator, Fabricms..., 

Ichneumon impressor, Graven-^ 


decimator, Graven- 

Microplitis — sp. ? 

Macrocentrus infirmus,* Nees 



Ichneumon fabricator, Fabricius . . 
Ichneumon fabricator, Fabricius .. 

Apanteles falcatus, Nees 

Lissonota impressor, Gravenhorst 

Microplitis spinolse, Nees 

Phygadeuon fumator, Gravenhorst 
Exetastes osculatorius, Fabricius... 

Exetastes illusor, Gravenhorst 

Exorista vulgaris, Fallen 

Ichneumon fabricator, Fabricius . . . 

Bhogas irregularis, "Wesmael 

Exetastes osculatorius, Fabricius... 
Exophanes exulans, Gravenhorst... 
Bhogas dimidiatus, Spinola 

By whom bred. 




W. R. Jeffrey. 

J. Sang. 



J. P. Cregoe. 

W. J. Cross. 



F. Norgate. 


J. Gardner. 

P. B. Mason. 

F. N. Pierce. 












S. D. Baristow. 



# 174 from one larva, all females. 


Abjecta, Mamestra 
Albipuncta, Leucania 
Alni, Acronycta . 
Arcuosa, Miana . 
Auricoma, Acronycta 
Australis, Aporophyla 
Bondii, Tapinostola 
Cespitis, Luperina 
Comma, Leucania 
Conigera, Leucania 
Connexa, Apamea 
Conspicillaris, Xylomyges 
Duplaris, Cymatopbora 
Elymi, Nonagria . 
Expolita, Miana . 
Fasciuncula, Miana 
Fibrosa, Apamea 
Flammea, Meliana 
Fluctuosa, Cymatopbora 
Fulva, Nonagria . 
Furuncula, Miana 
Furva, Mamestra . 
Gemina, Apamea . 
Geminipuncta, Nonagria 
Graminis, Cbaraaas 
Hawortbii, Celsena 
Hepatica, Xylopbasia . 
Leporina, Acronycta . 









Leucopbsea, Pacbetra 
Literosa, Miana . 
Litboxylea, Xylopbasia 
Littoralis, Leucania 
Micacea, Hydrascia 
Morpbeus, Caradrina 
Myricse, Acronycta 
Neurica, Nonagria 
Nictitans, Hydra3cia 
Ocularis, Cymatopbora 
Oculea, Apamea . 
Opbiogramma, Apamea 
Orion, Dipbtbera . 
Pallens, Leucania 
Polyodon, Xylopbasia 
Popularis, Heliopbobus 
Putrescens, Leucania 
Rumicis, Acronycta 
Saponariae, Neuria 
Scolopacina, Xylopbasia 
Sparganii, Nonagria 
Straminea, Leucania 
Strigosa, Acronycta 
Testacea, Luperina 
Trilinea, Grammesia 
Typbae, Nonagria 
Unanimis, Apamea 













Thyatira derasa. 

1, la, lb, larvae after last moult. 

Thyatira batis. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult. 

Cymatophora duplaris. 

3, larva after last moult. 

See pp. 1, 2. 

Cymatophora fluctcjosa. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult. 

See p. 2. 

Cymatophora diluta. 

5, larva after last moult. 

Cymatophora or. 

6, 6 a, larvae after last moult ; 6 b 9 pupa, 

Cymatophora ocularis. 

7, 7 a, larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 2 — 6. 

PlcLte 1 1Y 

I 1 - G.Moox-e/Jith. 


We3t,~Nevmiaxi &, C°imp. 

Plate LY 



W.BUCKLEt 1 <xet. 

"Weat,"Newma2i. &. G ?imp . 


Cymatophora flavicornis. 
1,1a, larvae after last moult. 

Cymatophora ridens. 

2, 2 a, 2 6, 2 c, larvae after last moult. 

Bryophila perla. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult (on yellow lichens 
on walls, April 1st, 1865). 

Bryophila glandipera. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae after last moult (& and c on 
yellow wall-lichen, April 1st, 1865). 

Diphthera Orion. 

5, ha, 5 b 9 larvae after last moult (a on oak, 
August 7th, 1875 — moth out June 4th, 1876; 5 and 
b on oak, August 7th and 8th, 1876 — moth June 
27th, 1877). 

See pp. 6 — 8. 



1,1a, larvae after last moult (a on garden pear, 
September 20th, 1872; imago ? June 22nd, 1873). 


2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult. 


3, larva before last moult ; 3 a, larvae after last 

See pp. 8, 9. 


4, larva after last moult. 


5, 5 a, larvae after last moult. 


6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae after last moult (on hawthorn, 
September 29th, 1862, September 10th, 1864, and 
September 1st, 1866). 

See pp. 9—13. 

Plate LVI 



F.CMoore litk 








1, 1 a, young larvae in the "bird's dirt" stage; 
lb, 1 c, larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 13—19. 


2, 2 a, larvae after last moult. 


3, 3 a, larvae after last moult (three on bramble 
October 19th, 1863 ; a on peach September 21st, 
1874; imago June 15th, 1875). 

See pp. 19, 20. 


4, larva after last moult (on oak and bramble, 
July 10th; imago August 3rd, 1866). 

See pp. 20, 21. 


5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae after last moult (on heath, 
sallow, and bog-myrtle, September 27th and 28th, 
1867; imagos June 18th and 21st, 1868). 


6, 6 a, larvae after last moult (on sallow, 
heather, birch, and bog-myrtle 5 September 12th 
and 14th, 1869 ; imago June 27th, 1870). 

See pp. 21—23. 


7, 7 a, larvae after last moult (on common reed, 
September 21st, 1862). 


Leuoania conigera. 

1,1a, lb, larvae after last moult (on Triticum 
repens and other grasses, May 19th ; imagos July 
8th— 10th, and 12th, 1865). 

See pp. 23, 24. 

Leuoania turca. 

2, 2 a, 2 6, larvae after last moult (on grass in 
woods, March 13th, April 5th and 25th ; imago 
June 18th, 1862). 

Leuoania lituargyrea. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 a 7 , larvae after last moult (on 
grasses, April 3rd and 16th, May 11th; imago July 
10th— 14th, 1861). 

Leuoania obsoleta. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult (on Arundo phrag- 
mites, August 18th, 1863). 

Leuoania pdtrescens. 

5, 5 a, 5 6, larvae after last moult (from Torquay, 
on small grasses, October 7th — 12th, and 24th, 
1864; imago August 3rd, 1865). 

See pp. 24, 25. 

Plate LVIII. 

West^Iewmar; cjc Co imp . 


Plate LIX. 

FC.Moore lith . 



West , Newmaxi 3c Co .imp 


Leuoania littoralis. 

1, la, lb, larvae after last moult (on Ammo- 
jphila arundinaceo, May 4th — 7th ; imago July 1st — 
20th, 1861). 

See pp. 25, 26. 

Leuoania pudorina. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult (on common reed, 
June 6th ; imago July 18th, 1864). 

Leuoania comma. 

3, 3 a, larvae after last moult (3 rather enlarged j 
on cock's-foot grass, July 22nd; full-fed August 
8th; one imago October 16th, 1864). 

See pp. 26, 27. 

Leuoania straminea. 

4, 4 a, 4 6, 4 c, larvae after last moult (on 
Phalaris arundinacea and Arundo phragmites, May 
9th— 15th ; imago July 8th and 9th, 1871). 

See pp. 27—30. 

Leuoania imp or a. 

5, 5 <x, 5 b, 5 c, larvae after last moult (5 on 
grasses, Exeter, May 12th — imago July 5th, 1865 ; 
a on grass, May 20th — imago ? July 9th, 1867 ; one 
on Luzula, May 9th — imago July 8th, 1862 ; one on 
Car ex, June 1st — imago July 10th, 1870). 


Leucania pallens. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, larvse after last moult (b on Aim csespi- 
tosa, reared from eggs ; figured May 30th, full-fed 
June 4th, imago July 9th, 1866). 

See pp. 30, 31. 

Leucania phragmitidis. 

2, larva after last moult (in stems and on common 
reed, June 27th, 1863). 

Meliana flammea. 

3, 3 a, larvse after last moult ; 3 c, magnified view 
of two segments of the larva ; 3 b, pupa. 

See pp. 32—35. 


4, 4 a, larvas after last moult ; 4 b 9 pupa. 

See pp. 36—38. 


5, larva after last moult ; 5 a, 5 b, adult larvae on 
their food-plant (Elymus arenarius). (On Elymus 
arenarius, Cleethorpes, near Grimsby, May 1 6th ; 
imago July 4th— 9th, 1871.) 

See pp. 38—40. 

Plate L X. 

F C.Moore lith 





West, Newman & Co. amp. 


Plate LXI 


1 \\ 


"West.Newman&Co "np. 




1, larvse after last moult (on stem of reed, June 
30th and July 1st, 1870). 

See pp. 40, 41. 


2, young larva ; 2 a, the lower figure represents 
larva after last moult, the pupa is seen inside the 
hollow stem (June 21st, 1870 ; imago $ July 23rd, 

See pp. 42 — 44. 


3, young larva ; 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larva9 after last 
moult ; 3 d, pupa. 

See pp. 44 — 47. 


4, 4 a, larvse after last moult ; 4 b, pupa in stem 
of Typha latifolia (August 26th, 1863 ; imago Sep- 
tember 17th, 1863). 

See p. 47. 


5, 5 a, larvse after last moult (in lower parts of 
stems of Arundo jphrag mites, June 22nd, 1864). 



1, young larva (in stem of ragwort, June 17th, 
1868); 1 a, adult larva (in stem of burdock, August 8th, 
1860) ; 1 b, larva after last moult (in stem of Verbas- 
cum nigrum, July 18th; imago September 16th, 1864). 

Hyde^cia nictitans. 

2, young larva ; 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvse after last moult 
(at roots of grasses, August 14th ; imago September 
19th, 1862, eating Poa maritima growing from under 
stones, June 12th, 24th, 28th, July 1st and 4th; bred 
August 4th to 10th, 1878). 

See pp. 48—50. 

Hyde^cia petasitis. 

3, larva after last moult (in roots of butterbur, July 
25th, 1862). 

Hydrjioia mioacea. 

4, larva after last moult (in stem of Equisetum, June 
22nd ; pupa July 15th ; imago August 14th, 1869) ; 
4<2, larva after last moult (in root-stem of valerian, 
June 25th ; imago August 6th, 1871). 

See pp. 51, 52. 

Axylia PUTEIS. 

5, 5 a, larvse after last moult (5 on sea-spinach, 
October 19th, 1860; imago June 16th, 1861 ; a from 
Galium mollugo, fed on that plant and on goosefoot, 
and on Cynoglossum officinale, &c, August 29th ; spun 
up in earthen cocoon September 4th, 1874; imago 
June 2nd, 1875). 

Xylophasia eurea. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, 6 c, larvae after last moult (on grass, 
February 3rd to 6th, and 17th to 27th ; imago May 4th 
to 26th, 1862). 

Plate LXII. 


F.C. Moore Hth. 


West r Newman & Co imp. 

Plate LXIII. 

; "%*. 


v ** \« A * • i. 

y ft* V ! * * 

6 b 

1 I Moore lith 


W.BUCKLKR. del. 


Xylophasia lithoxylea. 

1 9 larva after last moult (at roots of grass, March 
22nd, 1871 ; imago June 8th, 1871). 

See pp. 52—57. 

Xylophasia polyodon. 

2, 2 a, 2 b 9 larvae after last moult ; 2 c, pupa ; 2 d 9 
magnified dorsal view of segment of larva (2, April 
10th ; imago July 6th, 1871 ; a, May 1st, 1866; b 9 at 
roots of grass; c, June 30th, 1874). 

See pp. 57 — 58. 

Xylophasia hepatica. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvas after last moult (on grass, March 
18th; imago June 7th, 1862, and February 25th, 
April 1st; imago June 1st to 7th, 1865). 

See pp. 58, 59. 

Xylophasia scolopaoina. 

4, 4 a 9 4 b, larvas after last moult ; 4 c, pupa (on 
coarse wood, grasses, rushes, reeds, and dock, June 1st; 
imago July 8th, 1864 : on grasses in woods, June 
12th ; imago July 11th to 15th, 1875). 

See pp. 59, 60. 


5, larva after last moult (on Polygonum and dock, 
August 18th, 1862). 

Xylomyges conspicillaris. 

6, larva before last moult; 6 a 9 larva after last 
moult; 6 b, pupa (from eggs, July 23rd, 31st, 1877, 
on Lotus comiculatus and L. major; fond of the 
flowers : moths bred April 17th, 22nd, 1878). 

See pp. 60—63. 


Apoeophyla australis. 

1, 1 a, 1 c, young larvaa, figured in February or early 
in March ; lb, Id, 1 e, If, 1 g, larva3 after last moult, 
figured after middle of March, or in April (on Poa 
annua and other grasses and chickweed ; moths out 
September 22nd to 28th, 1868). 

See pp. 63 — 66. 

Heliophobus popularis. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult (from eggs laid Sep- 
tember, 1865, hatched April, 1866, figured June 13th 
and 29th, on small grasses ; imago ? September 5th, 
and ? September 11th, 1866. 

See pp. 67 — 69. 

Heliophobus hispida. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult, figured January 
21st and February 11th, 1865 (on common grass [Poa 
annua ?~\ ; imago October 11th, 1865). 

Char^as graminis. 

4, 4<a, 4<b, larvae after last moult, June 17th, 19th 
and 26th, 1868 (on various grasses ; imago bred from 
an unfigured larva, October 5th, 1862). 

See p. 70. 

Plate LXIV: 


\il ^ 


F. C. Moore litk. 


"We s t, "Ne vrnian 5c Co. imp . 

Plate LXV 


4 ex 


West. Newman <5c Co. imp . 



Paohetra lettcoph^a. 

1, larva after fifth moult, September 11th ; 1 b, 1 a, 
1 c, larvae after sixth moult, September 30th, October 
4th and 18th, 1882 (on Poa annua, from the egg). 

See pp. 70—73. 

Cerigo cytherea. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult (on grass, January 
and March ; imago August 10th, 1864. 


3, 3 a, larvae after last moult (at roots of grass, 
July 19th; imago September 4th, 1872 : at Worthing, 
May 31st; imago August 28th, 1861). 

See pp. 73—75. 


4, young larva ; 4 a, half-grown larva ; 4 b, 4 c, larvae 
after last moult (reared from eggs on Aira csespitosa ; 
at roots of Aira flexuosa, May 18th, 1865 ; on hard 
grasses, June 26th and July 19th, 1867). 

See pp. 75, 76. 

Mamestra abjecta. 

5, 5 a, larvae after last moult (on Poa maritima, 
June 14th and 16th, 1879 ; moth out S August 2nd). 

See pp. 76—79. 


Mamestra albioolon. 

1, larva about half grown (on Sisymbrium sojohia, 
afterwards on knot-grass) ; 1 a, larva after last moult 
(found under goosefoot, July 29th, 1870). 

Mamestra furva. 

2, 2 a, larvse after last moult (figured May 2nd and 
June 16th ; moths bred July 1st to 14th, 1877) (on 
fine grasses on top of turfwalls amongst large capping 
stones near Paisley). 

See pp. 79—84. 

Mamestra brassic^. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larvae after last moult (3 on 
strawberry, August 24th, 1861 ; a on garden mallow, 
October 12th, 1860 ; imago June, 1861 ; b on lettuce ; 
c, on garden poppy, July 28th, 1866 ; d, on strawberry 
and dock, July 31st, 1861 ; imago June 27th, 1862). 

Mamestra persioariji. 

4, 4 <x, 4 6, 4 c, larvse after last moult (on Pteris 
aquilina, on the tips of the fern, the green on the green 
parts, the brown on the brown parts, September 15th, 
1873; b on garden marigold, September 24th, 1874). 

Netjria SAPONARI.E. 

5, 5 a, larvae after last moult (on knot-grass, July 
28th and August 4th, 1866). 

See pp. 66, 67. 

Plate LXV1. 

F.C.Moore kt'h. 


West,Newman <5c Co. imp 

Plate LXVII 

3 a. 


f 1 


"F.C.Moore lith. 


We st, "Newman. 3cCo imp. 


Apamea basilinea. 

1,1 a, lb, larvae after last moult (1 on grasses, Feb- 
ruary 17th, 1862) (a, March 25th ; imago May 12th, 
1865; b on grass, February 23rd; imago May 15th, 

Apamea gemina. 

2, larva before last moult ; 2 a, larva after last 
moult (on grass found at roots of turf, very small 
January 3rd ; full grown March 18th ; imago June 
12th, 1872 : on Poa annua, Phalaris arundinacea, 
Triticum repens, &c). 

See pp. 86, 87. 

Apamea unanimis. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after last moult (on grass, 
March 2nd ; imago June 5th, 1868 ; March 4th ; imago 
May 27th to 30th, 1871 ; 3 on garden striped grass, 
October 21st, 1871). 

See pp. 87—92. 

Apamea fibrosa. 

4, larva after last moult (found in Oar ex and Gladium 
mariscus at Wicken Fen, July 1st to 6th, 1883, by 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher ; imago August I4th, 1883). 

See pp. 94—97. 

Apamea oculea. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvas after last moult (on grass and 
Luzula jpilosa, feeding inside the stems May 7th and 
16th, imago July 17th to 31st, 1862 ; 5 in root of Aira 
c&spitosa, May 21st ; imago, the I-niger variety, July 
25th, 1867 ; c in stem of Festuca arundinacea, April 
24th ; imago, the black variety, July 18th, 1867). 

See pp. 97, 98. 



1, la, lb, larvae after last moult ; a, on cock's-foot 
grass and mining in the stems, April 24th ; imago 
June 9th, 1865 ; b, on grass, April 11th ; imago June 
26th, 1862. 


2, larva after last moult ; on Air a csespitosa between 
the blades, April 23rd ; moth out June 2nd, 1875. 

See pp. 99, 100. 


3, 3 a, larvae after last moult ; 3, mining flower-buds 
oilris foetidissima (Rev. 0. R. Digby), June 7th, 1880; 
imago July 24th, 1880. 

See pp. 100—102. 


4, 4 a, larvae after last moult, in stems of Fesiuca 
arundinacea, April 4th, 1867 ; imagos July 9th and 
19th, 1867. 

See pp. 102. 


5, 5 a, larvae after last moult, in Carex glauca, May 
31st, 1881 ; moth bred July 13th, 1881. 

See pp. 103—106. 


6, 6 a, larvae after last moult, in the crown of roots 

of Air a csespitosa, May 21st, 1867, and May 24th, 
1870 ; imago June 30th, 1870. 

See pp. 106, 107. 

Cel^na Haworthii. 

7,7 a, larvas after last moult ; 7 b, pupa in situ in 
lower part of stem of cotton grass (Eriophorwm) . 

See pp. 107—109. 

Plate LXVI1I. 




4- <x 



I i^iU \iV ! 7b 





F.C.Moore li'th. 


"West, Newman StCo, imp, 


Plate \JQX. 






West, Newman 3c Co. imp. 


Grammesia trilinea. 

1, la, lb, larvae after last moult, October 1st, 1862, 
and October 15th, 1864, burrowing in moist earth at 
the base of Plantago major, and hybernating there full 
grown ; imago May 25th and 31st, 1865. b, November 
10th, 1868. 

See pp. 110, 111. 

Caradrina Morpheus. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae after last moult ; 2, on dead nettle 
and Atrijplex, September 16th, 1861 ; a, on low stunted 
bramble, September 13th, 1864; imago June 17th, 
1865 ; b, on Sedum telephium and sallow, September 
29th, 1871 ; imago June 4th, 1872. 

See pp. 111—113. 

Caradrina alsines. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after last moult ; a, on Alsine 
media, February 28th, 1861 ; b, found on broom, May 
9th, ate sorrel and chick weed ; imago July 2nd, 1865 ; 
c, on leaves of dog violet, May 27th ; imago July 7th 

Caradrina blanda. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult ; 4, on chickweed, 
April J 2th, 1861; a, on sorrel, grass, and chickweed, 
April 27th; imago July 12th, 1865. 

Caradrina cdbioularis. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae after last moult ; found in a wheat- 
rick on its removal in October, 1859, and September 
23rd, 1862, and September 10th, 1863 ; fed on wheat 
and plantain ; imagos August 4th, 1860, and July 
10th, 1863. 












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Grieve, Dr. J., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., care of W. L. Buchanan Esq., 212, 

St. Vincent street, Glasgow. 
Grut, Ferdinand, Esq., F.L.S., 9, Newcomen street, Southwark, S.E. 
Gunther, Dr., F.R.S., British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell 

road, South Kensington, S.W. 

Hackney Microscopical and Natural History Society, per J. A. Clark, 
Esq., Treasurer, 48, The Broadway, London fields, Hackney, N.E. 
Haileybury College, near Hertford. 

Hailstone, Edward, Esq., F.S.A., Walton Hall, Wakefield. 
Halifax Public Library. 
Hall, A. E., Esq., Norbury, Sheffield. 
Harbottle, A., Esq., 76, Mandle road, South Stockton. 
Harley, Dr. J., F.L.S., 9, Stratford place, W. 
Harmer, Sidney F., Esq., B.Sc, King's College, Cambridge. 
Harris, J. T., Esq., F.E.S., Burton Bank, Burton-on-Trent. 
Harrison, F., Esq., Junior United Service Club, Charles street, S.W. 


Harvard College, Cambridge, U.S.A. 

Havers, J. C, Esq., Joyce Grove, Nettlebed, Henley-on-Thames. 

Hawker, H. G., Esq., 1 1, Lockyer street, Plymouth. 

Hawksbaw, J. C, Esq., 33, Great George street, Westminster, S.W. 

Hepburn, Sir T. B., Bart., Smeaton, Preston Kirk, N.B. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club, Watford. 

Hickling, Gr. H., Esq., Mudie's Select Library, W.C. 

Hicks, Dr. John B., F.R.S., 24, George street, Hanover square, W. 

Hilton, James, Esq., 60, Montagu square, W. 

HinchlifT, Miss Katharine M., Worlington House, Instow. 

Hooker, Sir J. D., C.B., M.D., F.R.S., Sunningdale, Berks. 

Hope, G. P., Esq., Upminster Hall, near Romford. 

Hopkinson, John, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., The Grange, St. Alban's, 

Horley, W. L., Esq., Stanboroughs, Hoddesdon. 

Houghton, Rev. W., F.L.S., Preston Rectory, Wellington, Salop. 

Hovenden, F., Esq., F.L.S., Glenlea, Thurlow Park, Dulwich, S.E. 

Howden, Dr. J. C, Sunnyside, Montrose. 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society, S. L. Mosley, Esq., F.E.S., Hon. Sec, 
Beaumont Park, Huddersfield. 

Hughes, W. R., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, Wood House, Hands- 
wood, Birmingham. 

Hughes, W. Rathbone, Esq., 3, Princes Gate East, Princes Park, 

Hull Subscription Library. 

Hunt, John, Esq., Milton of Campsie, Glasgow. 

Hutchinson, Miss E., Grantsfield, Kimbolton, Leominster. 

Huxley, Professor T. H., F.B.S., Science Schools, South Kensington. 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

James, H. B., Esq., F.Z.S., F.R.A.S., TheOakes, Woodmansterne, near 

Janson, E. W., Esq., F.E.S., 35, Little Russell street, Bloomsbury. 

Jenner, Charles, Esq., Easter Duddingsten Lodge, Portobello, Edin- 

Jones, Albert H., Esq., Shrublands, Eltham. 

Jordan, Dr. R. C. R., 35, Harborne road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 


Kane, W. F. de V., Esq., M.R.I.A , F.E.S., Sloperton Lodge, Kings- 
town, Co. Dublin. 

Keays, F. Lovell, Esq., F.L.S., 26, Charles street, St. James', S.W. 

Kenderdine, F., Esq., Morningside, Old Trafford, Manchester. 

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Keys, J. H., Esq., 8, Princes street, Plymouth. 

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King, H. S., Messrs., 65, Cornhill, E.C. 

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Leeds, Philosophical and Literary Society. 

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Leicester, Alfred, Esq., Hollymount, Albert road, Birkdale, near South- 

Leicester Free Library, Wellington street, Leicester. 

Leipzig, University of. 

Lemann, F.C., Esq., M.E.S., Blackfriars House, Plymouth. 

Lidstone, W. G., Esq., 79, Union street, Plymouth. 

Lille, University Library. 

Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 

Lister, Arthur, Esq., F.L S., Leytonstone. 

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Liverpool, Royal Institution. 

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London Library, 12, St. James's square, S.W. 

Loven, Professor, Stockholm. 

Lubbock, The Rt. Hon. Sir J., Bart., M.P., F.L.S., F.R.S., President, 
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McGill, H. J., Esq., Aldenham Grammar School, Elstree, Herts. 
McGregor, Rev. J., West Green, Culross, Dunfermlime, N.B. 
Mcintosh, Prof. W. C, M.D., F.R.S., 2, Abbotsford crescent, St. 

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Maclagan, Sir Douglas, M.D., F.R.S.E., 28, Heriot row, Edinburgh. 
Maclaine, M. G., of Lochbuie, Isle of Mull. 
Madras Government Museum, Madras. 

Major, Charles, Esq., Red Lion Wharf, 69, Upper Thames street, E.C. 
Manchester Free Public Library. 
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Marshall, A. E., Esq., Waldersea, Beckenham. 
Martin, G. M., Esq., Red Hill Lodge, Compton, Wolverhampton. 
Mason, P. B., Esq., F.L.S., Burton-on-Trent. 
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Matthews, C, Esq., F.E.S., Erme Wood, Ivy Bridge, S. Devon. 
Meiklejohn, Dr. J. W, S., F.L.S., 105, Holland road, Kensington, W. 
Melbourne Public Library. 
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Microscopical Society, Royal, 20, Hanover square, W. 
Miller, J. C, Esq., Lynmouth House, Langley road, Elmers End, 

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Mivart, Prof. St. George J., F.R.S., Hurstcote, Chilworth, Surrey. 
Moore, Mrs. E. T., Holmfield, Oakholme road, Sheffield. 
Moseley, Sir T., Rolleston Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 
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Sec, 3, Sophie road, Nottingham. 

Oldfield, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., 21, Longridge road, Earl's Court, 

Oliver, Dr. J., F.R.S.Edin., 13, Gordon square, W.C. 
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Paisley Philosophical Institute, Paisley. 

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Parker, W. K., Esq., F.R.S., Crowland, Trinity road, Upper Tooting, 

Pascoe, F. P., Esq., F.L.S., 1, Burlington road, Westbourne Park, W. 
Pearce, W. G., 187, Caledonian road, King's Cross, N. 
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Poulton, E. B., Esq., Wykeham House, Oxford. 
Power, H., Esq., 37a, Great Cumberland place, Hyde Park, W. 
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Roberts, Dr. L., Ruabon, North Wales. 
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ham, Leatherhead. 

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Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay. 
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Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 
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Wells, J. R., Esq., 4, Pierrepoint road ; Springfield Park, Acton, W. 
Welter, Mons. H., 39, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 
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West Kent Natural History Society, Lewisham, S.E. 
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Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 

Yale College, New Haven, U.S. 

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York Philosophical Society, York. 

Zoological Society, 11, Hanover square, W. 



or THE 


MAECH, 1891. 


For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jun., MA., F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, BA. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Ray : consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the 'Biographie 
Universelle ; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and 
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German, by George Bask, F.R.S. Three Plates. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 


ITT. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B.A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. 
TuJk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 

For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

T. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. I. 8vo. 


II. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates 


II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 

For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Eighth Year. 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo. 



For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- 

cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 

For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 

For the Twelfth Year, 1855. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 

For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Allman, F.R.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 


For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 

For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five 
Plates. 8vo. 


For the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 

For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Giinther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-first Year, 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W. 

Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo. 


II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 

Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 

I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S, 


II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 

For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 


For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.B.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 


For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S, Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady. 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. II. Forty-nine Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 

For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron. Vol. I. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 


For the Thirty-ninth Year, 1882. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 

For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hyraenoptera. By 
P. Cameron. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. I. The 
Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-third Year, 1886. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited bv H. T. Stainton. Vol. II. The 
Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 


For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887. 

British Oribatidai. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.) 

For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. III. The 
concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen Plates. 

For the Forty-sixth Year, 1889. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron. Vol. III. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-seventh Year, 1890. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. IV. The 
first portion of the Noctuse. Sixteen Plates. 8vo.